In the past decade, there has been a shift in research, clinical development, and commercial activity to utilize RNA for medicine. With the rapid success in the development of lipid–RNA nanoparticles for mRNA vaccines against COVID-19 and several approved drugs, RNA has catapulted to the forefront of drug research. This peer-reviewed publication in the ACS Journal of Medical Chemistry uses the CAS Content Collection to examine the multifaceted benefits of RNA in drug development. This includes an examination of the potential it serves as a new method of therapeutics, either as a drug or a target. Also studied is the current landscape of RNA research and trends in medicine.