Biochemistry Sections of CA

1 Pharmacology

This section includes the biochemical, physiological, and toxic effects of drugs or potential drugs, their metabolism, analysis in biological systems, and structure-activity relations. Gene therapy is included, but drug genetic engineering methodology is included in Section 3; commercial production of drugs by genetically engineered organisms or cells is included in Section 16. Drug formulations are included in Section 63; analysis of drug formulations appears in Section 64; the pharmacology of hormones and agents affecting reproduction, e.g., contraceptives, in Section 2; radiopharmaceuticals, in Section 8; effects of antibiotics, bactericides, etc., on microorganisms in vitro are placed in Section 10; studies emphasizing the synthesis of drugs are placed in the appropriate synthetic organic or inorganic section; drugs used only as tools appear in the section appropriate to the organism or process under study.

2 Mammalian Hormones

This section covers the biochemistry, physiology, pharmacology, toxicology, analysis, structure, properties, isolation, purification, tissue distribution, metabolism, and mechanisms of mammalian hormones, hormonal receptors, and hormone-like substances. The molecular genetics of hormones is also placed here. Nonmammalian hormones in nonmammalian systems are covered in Sections 5 or 12, plant hormones are placed in Sections 5 or 11, and hormone formulations are in Section 63. Hormones in pathology and in physiology of immunological processes are covered in Sections 14 and 15, respectively. The pharmacology of non-hormone hormone inhibitors is placed in Section 1, and studies emphasizing synthesis appear in the appropriate synthetic section.

3 Biochemical Genetics

This section includes molecular-level studies on gene and genomic structural organization and mapping, sequences, mutation, regulation of expression, recombination, repair, replication, molecular cloning, genetic engineering, methods for genetic analysis and manipulation, and genetic properties of subgenomic entities (plasmids and transposons). Classical genetics (e.g., isoenzyme and haplotype patterns in populations) is treated in appropriate organism-specific sections. Genetics of animal immune mediator regulation and disease pathogenesis in plants, nonmammals, and mammals are respectively in Sections 15, 11, 12, and 14. Gene therapy is in Sections 1, 2, 15, and 63. Studies on physiological effectors of gene expression are in sections appropriate for the effector. Physicochemical studies of nucleic acids are in Section 6. Sequences of hormones, toxins, proteins, enzymes, and immunochemicals are respectively in Sections 2, 4, 6, 7, and 15.

4 Toxicology

This section includes the toxic effects of chemicals, venoms, and toxins on plants, nonmammals, and mammals, including subcellular studies. Coverage includes actual or potential environmental pollutants, forensic and medicolegal studies, toxicological analysis, agrochemical toxicity in nontarget organisms, ethanol biological effects, tobacco toxicity, antidotes, and oxygen toxicity. Structure elucidation of proteinaceous toxins and proteinaceous venom components is also covered. Toxin studies emphasizing microbial infections or the physiology of the toxins appear in the section appropriate to the investigated organism. Drug, hormone, agrochemical (involving target organisms), food, and cosmetic toxicity are covered in Sections 1, 2, 5, 17, and 62, respectively. Toxic substances used as investigatory tools are covered in the section appropriate to the organism or process under study.

5 Agrochemical Bioregulators

This section includes studies on agrochemicals such as herbicides, insecticides, microbicides, and other pesticides, plant regulators and pest attractants and repellents, externally applied veterinary pesticides, and chemosterilants of agronomic interest. Studies on agrochemical residues in soil and agricultural waters (including analyses) are covered here; agrochemicals as pollutants are covered in Sections 4, 59, or 61. Studies of pest resistance in genetically engineered plants are also covered here. Toxic effects of agrochemicals on nontarget organisms are covered in Section 4. Mechanism of action studies of plant hormones are covered in Section 11. Pesticide occurrence in food is covered in Section 17. Studies on the synthesis or manufacture of agrochemicals are covered in Sections 9 or 16 or the appropriate organic or inorganic chemistry section.

6 General Biochemistry

This section includes studies of subcellular systems and processes; biological membranes (and models); molecular evolution and prebiotic Earth; xenobiochemistry; comparative studies involving organisms covered in more than one CA section; nomenclature rules for biomolecules other than toxins, hormones, enzymes, and immunochemicals; the physicochemical properties of nucleic acids and proteins; the structures of their constituent parts; and the sequences and structures of nucleic acids involved in processing or translation of mRNA. Studies of proteins (and the nucleic acids that encode them) are in sections appropriate to their activity. Other natural products are in Section 6 when their physicochemical and biological properties are correlated. Subcellular processes are excluded when the process is first effected in cellular systems or when more appropriate to a section dealing with the process. Genetic processes are in Section 3.

7 Enzymes

This section covers all aspects of enzyme and coenzyme biochemistry, including analysis, isolation, purification, characterization, structure (including sequence), and active site studies, reaction mechanisms, model studies, substrate specificity, activation, inhibition, regulation (in vitro), immobilization, enzyme heterogeneity, subcellular biosynthesis, and structure studies on protein inhibitors and activators. The use of enzymes as analytical reagents is usually included in Section 9. Physiology, including enzymic activation, of blood-clotting enzyme systems is covered in Section 13. Determination of tissue enzyme levels where tissue composition is of primary interest and studies on enzyme heterogeneity where the interest is primarily in the organism are found in the appropriate organism-related sections. Immobilized enzyme systems with commercial fermentation interest are in Section 16.

8 Radiation Biochemistry

This section includes the biochemical effects of high- and low-energy radiation, and the metabolism and biochemical effects of radioisotopes and radioactive fallout. The section also includes biochemical studies with radioprotectants, radiomimetics, radiosensitizers, radioisotope decorporation and chelating agents, scintigraphic agents, radiocontrast media, and the nonclinical use of radiation in disease diagnosis and therapy. Studies of the chemical effects of light on the vision process or in photoperiodicity phenomena are covered in the organism-specific section. Light in photosynthesis is found in Section 11; radiopharmaceutical and radiocontrast media formulations and analysis in Sections 63 and 64, respectively; equipment and technology for application in radiotherapy and health physics in Section 71; radiochemical and spectrochemical analysis of general biochemical interest in Section 9.

9 Biochemical Methods

This section covers methods for determining, detecting, separating, and purifying chemical components of biological systems, for determining biopolymer properties, for labeling biological compounds by exchange reactions or by synthetic procedures with tracers, for preparing and maintaining cell or tissue cultures or organs, for organ (nonendocrine) function tests and clinicochemical methods of diagnosis, for synthesizing natural products with enzymes, and for determining effects of antimicrobials on microorganisms. This section also covers apparatus and reagents needed for the various methods as well as apparatus and chemical technology associated with life-support systems. Analytical and/or preparative methods of interest in specific fields are found in the sections covering these fields. Genetic methods are found in Section 3.

10 Microbial, Algal, and Fungal Biochemistry

This section includes studies on the compositional, nutrition, metabolism, development, and classical genetics of viroids, viruses, bacteria, yeasts, protozoa, slime molds, algae, and fungi. Also included here are studies of mRNA processing and translation, and gene expression studies where the interest is in the mRNA (cDNA) or product. Structure elucidation and(or) physicochemical properties of proteins and nucleic acids are covered in Sections 3, 4, 6, or 7. Genetic engineering and molecular genetics of microorganisms, are covered in Section 3. Pathological effects of microorganisms are covered in the sections for the pathology of the target organisms. All photosynthetic processes involving bacteriochlorophyll or chlorophyll are covered in Section 11. Microbial synthesis of substances of industrial or commercial interest is covered in Section 16.

11 Plant Biochemistry

This section includes plant metabolism, composition, diseases, development and aging, hormone physiology, classical genetics and phylogeny, periodicity, nastic responses, and photosynthetic studies relating to chlorophyll or bacteriochlorophyll. Tobacco studies are included except for toxicity studies which are placed in Section 4. Included are studies of mRNA processing and translation, and gene expression studies where interest is in the mRNA (cDNA) or product. Structure elucidation and(or) physicochemical properties of natural products other than proteins and nucleic acids from plants, if not the initial isolation, are in Sections 26 and 30-34, with those for proteins and nucleic acids in Sections 3, 4, 6, or 7. Genetic engineering and molecular genetics of plants are in Section 3. Plant nutrition is in Section 19, and agrochemicals of agronomic interest are in Section 5. Studies of macroalgae and macrofungi are in Section 10.

12 Nonmammalian Biochemistry

This section covers composition, development, metabolism, physiology, pathology, and classical genetics and phylogeny of nonmammalian animals, excluding protozoa. Included are studies on disease pathogenesis, mRNA processing and translation, and gene expression studies where interest is in the mRNA (cDNA) or product. Studies of subcellular processes are covered in Section 6; structure elucidation and(or) physicochemical properties of natural products other than proteins and nucleic acids from nonmammals, if not the initial isolation in Sections 26 and 30-34; structure elucidation and(or) physicochemical properties of proteins and nucleic acids in Sections 3, 4, 6, 7, or 15; and nutritional studies in Section 18. Effects of pest-control agents on target organisms are included in Sections 1 or 5. Immunology in nonmammals is covered in Section 15.

13 Mammalian Biochemistry

This section covers chemical composition, development, metabolism, physiology, classical genetics and phylogeny of mammals. Included are cellular studies on mRNA processing and translation and gene expression where interest is in the mRNA (cDNA) or product. Studies of subcellular processes are covered in Section 6; structure elucidation and(or) physicochemical properties of natural products other than proteins and nucleic acids from mammals, if not the initial isolation, in Sections 26 and 30-34; and structure elucidation and(or) physicochemical properties of proteins and nucleic acids in Sections 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, or 15. Mammalian pathology, immunology, and nutrition are covered in Sections 14, 15, and 18, respectively.

14 Mammalian Pathological Biochemistry

This section includes the biochemistry, etiology, pathogenesis, genetics, nonpharmacological treatment, such as surgery or transplantation, and manifestations of mammalian diseases. Disease diagnosis by standard analytical methods is included. Novel diagnostic methodology is found in Section 9, Section 3 (for genetic methods), or in sections related to specific substances (e.g., Sections 2 or 15). The pharmacologial treatment of diseases is found in Sections 1, 2, and 63; radiation therapy studies in Section 8; alcoholism studies in Section 4; industrial and air pollution-related diseases in Sections 4 and 59; nutritional diseases in Section 18. In mammalian infections, host-related changes are here, but infective-organism changes are found in Sections 10 and 12. The immunochemistry of diseases is found in Section 15. Food allergies are placed in Section 17.

15 Immunochemistry

This section includes the chemistry, analysis, and biological activity of immunochemical substances such as antigens, antibodies, allergens, blood-group substances, and cytokines of animals. The genetics of immunity, including gene therapy, are included when immunochemical interest is emphasized. Genomic and genetic element manipulations are in Section 3 when the interest in the immunochemistry is incidental. Immunochemistry of cell metabolism, of tissue rejection, of disease, and therapeutic use of immunological mediators are included. Plant immunochemistry is in Section 11. Therapeutic use of immunosuppressants, immune adjuvants, and interferon inducers are in Section 1. Immunochemical methods for determining nonimmunological substances are in Section 9 and other appropriate sections. Formulation of vaccines and delivery systems for human or veterinary pharmaceutical use is in Section 63.

16 Fermentation and Bioindustrial Biochemistry

This section includes the biochemistry of fermentation processes of actual or potential commercial interest. The use of immobilized enzymes, nonmicrobial tissue cultures and genetically engineered plants and animals are included. Fermentation in food production, other than single-cell protein production, is found in Section 17. Fermentations related to waste treatment are found in Section 60. Fermentative production of fuels is in Section 52. Studies emphasizing the technology of enzyme immobilization are found in Section 7. The isolation and identification of microbial products are in Section 10. Structural elucidation of microbial products in which the isolation procedure or biological properties are not detailed is found in the appropriate organic chemistry natural products section. Tobacco fermentation is in Section 11 and compost fermentation is in Section 19.

17 Food and Feed Chemistry

This section includes food and feed components and methods for their determination, additives, processing, packaging, and preservation systems, government regulations, and nutritive value evaluations in nontarget organisms or in vitro. Studies of contamination and contaminants, carcinogens, mutagens, toxicants, and nonnutrient antimutagens and anticarcinogens present in foods and feeds or their formation on processing and storage are placed here. Also included are the chemistry, reactions, and functional properties of components in food and model systems, genetically engineered foods, food allergies, analysis of food and FD & C dyes for intermediates and impurities, fermented foods, alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages, flavorings, condiments, sweeteners and cariogenicity, postharvest ripening and storage changes of food quality interest, and physiological effects of nonnutrient food components.

18 Animal Nutrition

This section includes general nutritional studies with all animal species except protozoa, including requirements, utilization, imbalances, interrelations, nutritional disease, and feeding trials with nutrients and non-nutrient growth and metabolic stimulants. Nutritive value determinations on feed and food components in target animals are placed here, but such studies by chemical, enzymic, or biological methods in vitro are covered in Section 17. Nonnutritional aspects of obesity and metabolic disorders are covered in Section 14 for mammals and in Section 12 for nonmammals, and nutrient intermediate metabolism is covered in Sections 12 or 13. Therapeutic nutrition is covered here; formulation and manufacture of products for parenteral nutrition are covered in Section 63. Toxicology of nutrients is included, but food and feed toxicology studies are covered in Section 17.

19 Fertilizers, Soils, and Plant Nutrition

This section covers technology and properties of soil amendments and the effects of amendments on plant composition and soil chemistry. Plant nutrient requirements and use are covered here; whereas, nutrient metabolism by plants and tissue cultures are placed in Section 11. Soil organic and inorganic constituents of agricultural interest and soil reclamation are included, but studies on inorganic constituents not of agricultural interest and biogeoprospecting are placed in Section 53. Soil pollution is covered here and in Sections 4, 8, 59, 60, 61, and 71, depending on study emphasis. Soil modification for engineering is covered in Section 58. Methods for study of fertilizers, plant nutrition, and soil constituents of agricultural interest are included.

20 History, Education, and Documentation

This section includes awards, biographies, and obituaries of well-known chemists; historical chemistry, paleontological and archaeological chemistry; chemistry of art and preservation of art objects; chemistry teaching, experiments, and demonstrations; and general studies on chemical information, documentation, data processing, and computer applications related to these activities. The section also includes general notes on chemical industry and economics, as well as reports on units and systems of chemical measurement and nomenclature of general chemical interest. Chemical information and computer applications related to chemistry covered in a specific section are included in that section, and chemical industry and economic studies related to a specific substance