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CAS 标准缩写与首字母缩略词

介绍

在 CAS 数据库中,索引项的摘要文本、关键词短语和文本修饰短语中的术语会自动生成某些缩写和首字母缩略词。大多数缩写在 1982 年之前就已使用。用户需要了解此类标准缩写和首字母缩略词,以便在搜索配置文件中使用它们并在文本中识别它们。

在本文档中,共两个列表列出了 CAS 出版物和服务中自动生成的缩写和首字母缩略词。为了引导用户使用需要包含在他们的搜索配置文件中的缩写,列表 A 按缩写的完整术语的字母顺序排列。在线搜索 CAS 缩写词或首字母缩略词时,请勿使用句点。为了解释文本中遇到的缩写,列表 B 按缩写和首字母缩略词的字母顺序排列。

此网页上包含的示例和列表:

除了专门列为标准缩写和首字母缩略词的术语外,以下类型的单词也会自动生成缩写:

  1. 通常缩写术语加上前缀而形成的单词也可以进行缩写,例如,“microchem”与“microchemical”。在列表 A 中,左边用#表示的单词表示那些添加前缀通常会缩写的单词。(请参见,一些常见前缀术语的缩写
  2. 以“-ology”或“-ologic(al)(ly)”结尾的单词缩写为“-ol”,例如“geol”表示“geology”。(参见示例
  3. 以“-ography”或“-ographic(al)(ly)”结尾的单词缩写为“-og”,例如“chromatog”表示“chromatographic”。(参见示例
  4. 通过将“s”加到单数缩写上而形成多个名词缩写,例如"derivs"表示"derivatives"。但有两种特殊情况,用单数缩写以表示单数和复数形式(例如,“equil”表示“equilibrium(s)”)和列表上标有星号 (*) 的单词,其复数不会缩写。
  5. 需要“s”的动词形式通过在列出的缩写中加上“s”进行缩写,例如“Compd. decomps. on heating" 表示 "Compound decomposes on heating。"

标题中的术语不会自动生成标准缩写和首字母缩略词。但是,标题中可能会出现作者使用的缩写。

除了标准的、自动生成的缩写和首字母缩略词之外,其他首字母缩略词、原子符号(例如 Cl、Sb)和分子式(例如 NaCl)也可用于 CAS 出版物和服务中。

以“-ology”结尾的一些术语的示例,缩写为“-ol”。

    anesthesiology                       limnology 
    bacteriology                         meteorology 
    biology                              methodology 
    cardiology                           morphology 
    chronology                           nephrology 
    cytology                             neurology 
    dermatology                          oncology 
    ecology                              ophthalmology 
    endocrinology                        pathology 
    enzymology                           petrology 
    epidemiology                         pharmacology 
    etiology                             physiology 
    gastroenterology                     radiology 
    geology                              rheology 
    gynecology                           sedimentology 
    hematology                           serology 
    histology                            technology 
    homology                             teratology 
    hydrology                            topology 
    immunology                           virology

缩写“-ol” 也可以应用于形容词形式,如“pharmacologic(al)”、副词形式,如 “pharmacologically” 以及前缀形式,如以“-ology”结尾的术语“neuropharmacology”。

 

以“-ography”结尾的一些术语的示例,缩写为“-og”

angiography            metallography 
 bibliography           micrography 
 biography              oceanography 
 cardiography           petrography 
 cholecystography       photography 
 chromatography         planography 
 crystallography        polarography 
 derivatography         radiography 
 electroencephalography reprography 
 electrography          spectrography 
 fractography           thermography 
 fragmentography        tomography 
 geography              topography 
 holography             xerography 
 lithography 

缩写“-og” 也可以应用于形容词形式,如“geographic(al)”、副词形式,如 “geographically” 以及前缀形式,如以“-ography”结尾的术语“paleogeography”。

 

一些常见前缀术语的缩写 *

anal. (analysis)   electroanal.   immunoanal.   microanal.   radioanal.   thermoanal.  at. [atomic(al)(ly)]   diat.   interat.   monoat.   polyat.   tetraat.   triat.  chem. [chemical(ly), chemistry]   agrochem.   biochem.   cytochem.   electrochem.   geochem.   histochem.   immunochem.   neurochem.   petrochem.   photochem.   physicochem.   radiochem.   spectrochem.   thermochem.  clin. [clinic(al)(ly)]   preclin.   Subclin.  cond. (conductivity)   electrocond.   magnetocond.   photocond.   semicond.   supercond.   thermocond.  crystn. (crystallization)   cocrystn.   electrocrystn.  recrystn. decompn. (decomposition)   photodecompn.  degrdn. (degradation)   biodegrdn.   photodegrdn.   thermodegrdn.  detn. (determination)   immunodetn.   microdetn.  dissocn. (dissociation)   photodissocn.   predissocn.  elec. [electric(al)(ly)]   acoustoelec.   bioelec.   dielec.   ferroelec.   isoelec.   paraelec.   photodielec.   photoelec.   piezoelec.   pyroelec.   thermoelec.  equil. (equilibrium)   disequil.   nonequil.   preequil.  extn. (extraction)   coextn.   electroextn.   reextn.  Hb (hemoglobin)   cargonylHb   carboxyHb   deoxyHb   ferriHb   metHb   oxyHb   sulfHb  irradn. (irradiation)   postirradn.   preirradn.  mech. [mechanic(al)(ly)]   biomech.   electromech.   micromech.   photomech.   physicomech.   thermomech.  mol. (molecule, molecular)   bimol.   intermol.   intramol.   macromol.   monomol.   supermol.   supramol.   turbomol.   unimol.  org. [organic(ally)]   bioinorg.   bioorg.   chloroorg.   electroorg.   fluoroorg.   inorg.   metalloorg.   microorg.  oxidn. (oxidation)   autoxidn.   biooxidn.   cooxidn.   deoxidn.   electrooxidn.   epoxidn.   peroxidn.   photooxidn.   reoxidn.   thermooxidn.  pptn. (precipitation)   copptn.   immunopptn.  soly. (solubility)   hydrosoly.   insoly.   liposoly.  sym. [symmetry, symmetric(al)(ly)]   asym.   unsym.

* 参见“标准缩写和首字母缩略词”,列表 A 表示完整的术语列表,如有前缀,通常会缩写。

在 STN 上自动检索 CAS 缩写

在 STN 上的 CAS 书目文件中,例如 CAplus 或 CA,您可以自动检索 CAS 缩写。只需在箭头提示下输入命令“设置缩写打开”和“设置复数打开”。

“设置缩写打开”时,将为“基本索引”中搜索的所有术语或组成“基本索引”的特定字段生成缩写。若找到任何缩写,则会弹出单独通知行。当您“设置复数打开”时,您还会自动检索多个缩写。

“设置缩写”默认为“关闭”。若要在会话中包含所有“搜索”和“查询”命令的缩写,请在箭头提示下输入“设置缩写打开”。若要保留当前会话之外的“打开”设置,请输入“设置缩写打开执行”。

并非所有 CAS 标准缩写都可用于“设置缩写”。大多数单位和多字术语的 CAS 缩写已被删除,以便将误报和不相关检索降至最低。若要查看添加缩写的术语列表,请在文件中的箭头提示 (=>) 处输入“求助缩写”。有关此“设置”命令的更多信息,请在箭头提示下输入“求助设置缩写”。

 

"设置缩写打开”以检索 CAS 缩写

=> 设置缩写打开执行 设置命令完成
=> 设置复数打开执行 设置命令完成
=> S PRECIPITAT?   35280 PRECIPITAT?
  75559 PPT
  30694 PPTS
  98131 PPT
   (PPT OR PPTS)   59648 PPTD
      2 PPTDS
  59648 PPTD
   (PPTD OR PPTDS)
  13101 PPTG
 131576 PPTN    1980 PPTNS
 132847 PPTN
   (PPTN OR PPTNS)
L1  258048 PRECIPITAT? PRECIPITAT? OR PPT OR PPTD OR PPTG OR PPTN)

在线求助讯息

=> 文件数据库 => 求助缩写 当您“设置缩写打开”时,若在“基本索引”或组成“基本索引”的特定字段中搜索术语或包含所列术语的截断词干,则以下列表中的术语会自动生成缩写。示例:          => 设置缩写打开     设置命令完成      => S CONCENTRAT?        149313 CONCENTRAT?                 50824 CONC        115142 CONCD        9541 CONCG       1035004 CONCN            L2       1221846 CONCENTRAT?        (CONCENTRAT? OR CONC OR CONCD OR CONCG OR CONCN)   有关此“设置”选项的更多信息,请在箭头提示 (=>) 下输入“求助设置缩写”。有关“基本索引”中的字段列表,请在此文件的箭头提示处输入“HELP SFIELDS”。ABSOLUTE             DILUTED               PRECIPITATE  
ABSTRACT             DILUTING              PRECIPITATED  
ADDITION             DILUTION              PRECIPITATING  
ADDITIONAL           DIMETHYLFORMAMIDE     PRECIPITATION  
ADDITIONALLY         DISSOCIATE            PREPARATION  
ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN 
DISSOCIATED           PREPARE  
ALCOHOL              DISSOCIATING          PREPARED  
ALCOHOLIC            DISSOCIATION          PREPARING  
ALIPHATIC            DISTILLATION          PRODUCTION  
ALKALINE             DISTILLED             PROPYL  
ALKALINITY           DISTILLING            PURIFICATION            DECOMPOSING          ORGANIC               FLAVIN ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE  
DECOMPOSITION        OXIDATION             FLAVIN MONONUCLEOTIDE  
DEGRADATION          PHENYL                INHIBITORY 
DOSE  
DEOXYRIBONUCLEASE   
PHYSICAL              LETHAL DOSE  
DERIVATIVE           PHYSICALLY            LUTEINIZING HORMONE  
DETERMINATION        POLYMERIZATION        NICOTINAMIDE MONONUCLEOTIDE  
DETERMINE            POLYMERIZED           NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE  
DETERMINED           POLYMERIZING          NUCLEAR QUADRUPOLE RESONANCE  
DETERMINING          POSITIVE              RIBONUCLEIC ACID  
DIAMETER             POSITIVELY            SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY  
DILUTE               POWDERED              UV PHOTOELECTRON

 

列表 A

absolute                                                 abs. abstract                                               abstr.   #addition                                               addn. additional(ly)                                         addnl. adenosine 5'-diphosphate                                  ADP    adenosine 5'-monophosphate                                AMP    adenosine triphosphatase                               ATPase    adenosine 5'-triphosphate                                 ATP    adrenocorticotropin                                      ACTH   #alcohol(ic)                                             alc. #aliphatic                                             aliph. alkaline                                                 alk. alkalinity*                                             alky. all valence electron                                      AVE alternating current                                      a.c. amount                                                   amt. ampere (unit)                                              A #analysis*                                              anal.   #analytical(y)                                          anal. angstrom unit                                             **    anhydrous                                              anhyd. apparatus                                                app. approximate(ly)                                       approx. approximation                                        approxn.   #aqueous                                                  aq.   #aromatic                                               arom. associate                                              assoc. associated                                            assocd. associating                                           assocg.   #association                                          assocn. asymmetric(al)(ly)                                      asym. atmosphere (unit)                                        atm. atmospheric                                              atm.   #atomic                                                   at. atomic mass unit                                         amu    atomic orbital                                            AO    augmented plane wave                                     APW    average                                                  av. Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer                                BCS    barrel (unit)                                            bbl    becquerel (unit)                                          Bq    billion electron volts (unit)                            GeV    biochemical oxygen demand                                BOD    body centered cubic                                     bcc. Bohr magneton (unit)                                    mB**    boiling point                                           b.p. British thermal unit                                     Btu    bushel (unit)                                             bu    butyl (normal)                                            Bu   #calculate                                              calc.   #calculated                                            calcd.   #calculating                                           calcg.   #calcul                                                calcn. calorie (unit)                                            cal    carboxymethyl cellulose                         CM- cellulose   #chemical(ly)                                           chem. chemical oxygen demand                                    COD    chemically pure                                            CP   #chemistry                                               chem. circular dichroism                                         CD   #clinical(ly)                                            clin. coefficient                                             coeff.   #coenzyme A                                                CoA    coherent potential approximation                           CPA    commercial(ly)                                            com. complete neglect of differential overlap                  CNDO    composition                                             compn. compound                                                compd. concanavalin A                                            ConA   #concentrate                                             conc.   #concentrated                                           concd.   #concentrating                                          concg.   #concentration                                          concn.   #conductivity*                                           cond. configuration interaction                                  CI    constant                                                const. containing                                              contg. corrected                                                 cor. coulomb (unit)                                               C    coupled electron pair approximation                       CEPA   #critical                                                 crit.   #crystalline                                             cryst. crystallisation                                          crystn   crystallised                                             crystd   crystallising                                            crystg  #crystallization                                        crystn.   #crystallized                                           crystd.   #crystallizing                                          crystg. cubic feet per minute (unit)                                cfm    curie (unit)                                                 Ci    current density                                            c.d. cyclic AMP                                                 cAMP    cyclic GMP                                                 cGMP    cytidine 5'-diphosphate                                     CDP    cytidine 5'-monophosphate                                   CMP    cytidine 5'-triphosphate                                    CTP    debye unit                                                    D    decompose                                               decomp. decomposed                                             decompd. decomposing                                            decompg.   #decomposition                                         decompn.   #degradation                                            degrdn. degree Celsius centigrade (unit)                           C**    degree Fahrenheit (unit)                                   F**    degree Kelvin                                                K    degree of polymerization                                  d.p. density                                                     d. deoxyribonuclease                                        DNase    deoxyribonucleic acid                                      DNA    derivative                                              deriv.   #determination                                           detn. determine                                                 det.   #determined                                              detd. determining                                              detg. diameter                                                 diam. diatomics-in-molecules                                     DIM    diethylaminoethyl cellulose                     DEAE-cellulose    ifferential thermal analysis                               DTA    dilute                                                     dil. diluted                                                   dild. diluting                                                  dilg. dilution                                                  diln. dimethylformamide                                           DMF    diphosphopyridine nucleotide                                NAD    direct current                                             d.c. disintegrations per minute (unit)                           dpm    dissociate                                              dissoc. dissociated                                            dissocd. dissociating                                           dissocg.   #dissociation                                          dissocn.   #distillation                                            distn.   #distilled                                               distd.   #distilling                                              distg. effective dose                                              ED   #electric(al)(ly)                                        elec. electrocardiogram                                          ECG    electroencephalogram                                       EEG    electromagnetic unit                                       emu    electromotive force                                       emf. electron paramagnetic resonance                            ESR    electron spin resonance                                    ESR    electron volt (unit)                                        eV    electrostatic unit                                         esu    enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay                        ELISA   #equilibrium(s)                                          equil. equivalent (unit)                                        equiv.   #equivalent                                              equiv. especially                                                 esp. estimate                                                   est. estimated                                                 estd. estimating                                                estg. estimation                                                estn. ethyl                                                        Et    ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid                            EDTA    evaporate                                                 evap. evaporated                                               evapd. evaporating                                              evapg. evaporation                                              evapn.   #examination                                             examn.   #examined                                                examd.   #examining                                               examg. experiment                                                expt. experimental(ly)                                         exptl. extended Hueckel molecular orbital                         EHMO    extract                                                    ext. extracted                                                 extd. extracting                                                extg.   #extraction                                               extn. face centered cubic                                        fcc. farad (unit)                                                 F    fermentation                                             fermn. flavin adenine dinucleotide                                 FAD    flavin mononucleotide                                       FMN    floating spherical Gaussian orbital                        FSGO    foot (unit)                                                  ft    foot-pound (unit)                                         ft-lb    follicle-stimulating hormone                                FSH    freezing point                                              f.p. gallon (unit)                                                gal    gauss (unit)                                                   G    Gaussian-type orbital                                        GTO    gram (unit)                                                    g    gravitational constant                                         g    gray (absorbed radiation dose) (unit)                         Gy    5'-monophosphate                                             GMP    guanosine 5'-triphosphate                                    GTP    hectare                                                       ha    henry                                                          H   #hemoglobin                                                   Hb    hertz (cycles/sec) (unit)                                     Hz    hexagonal close-packed                                      hcp. highest occupied molecular orbital                          HOMO    hour (unit)                                                    h    Hueckel molecular orbital                                    HMO    hundredweight (unit)                                         cwt    hydrogenic atoms in molecules                                HAM    immunoglobulin                                                Ig    inch (unit)                                                   in. independent electron pair approximation                     IEPA    infrared                                                      IR    inhibitory dose                                               ID    inosine 5'-diphosphate                                       IDP    inosine 5'-monophosphate                                     IMP    inosine 5'-triphosphate                                      ITP    intermediate neglect of differential overlap                INDO    international unit                                            IU    interstitial cell-stimulating hormone                       ICSH    intramuscular(ly)                                           i.m. intraperitoneal(ly)                                         i.p. intravenous(ly)                                             i.v.   #irradiation                                             irradn. iterative extended Hueckel molecular orbital               IEHMO    joule (unit)                                                   J    kelvin (unit)                                                  K    laboratory                                                  lab. lethal dose                                                   LD    linear combination of atomic orbitals                       LCAO    linear combination of fragment configuration                LCFC    liquid                                                      liq. liter (unit)                                                   L    low energy electron diffraction                             LEED    lowest unoccupied molecular orbital                         LUMO    lumen (unit)                                                  lm    luteinizing hormone                                           LH    lux (unit)                                                    lx    magnetohydrodynamics                                         MHD    manufacture                                                manuf. manufactured                                              manufd. manufacturing                                             manufg. mathematical(ly)                                            math. maximum(s)                                                   max. maxwell (unit)                                                 Mx   #mechanical(ly)                                             mech. melanocyte-stimulating hormone                                MSH    melting at                                                     m. melting point                                                m.p. melts at                                                       m. messenger RNA                                                mRNA    metabolism                                                  metab. meter (unit)                                                    m    methyl                                                         Me    mile (unit)                                                    mi    miles per hour (unit)                                         mph    minimum(s)                                                    min. minute (unit)                                                 min    miscellaneous                                                misc.   #mixture                                                     mixt. modified neglect of diatomic overlap                          MNDO    molal (unit)                                                     m    molar (unit)                                                     M    mole (unit)                                                    mol   #molecular                                                     mol. molecular orbital                                               MO   #molecule                                                      mol. molecules-in-molecules                                          MIM    month (unit)                                                    mo. multiconfigurational self-consistent field                   MC-SCF   #negative(ly)                                                  neg. neglect of diatomic differential overlap                      NDDO    neglect of nonbonded differential overlap                     NNDO    nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide                              NAD    nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate                   NADP    nicotinamide mononucleotide                                    NMN nuclear magnetic resonance                                     NMR    nuclear quadrupole resonance                                   NQR    number                                                         no. observed                                                      obsd. oersted (unit)                                                  Oe    ohm (unit)                                                     O **    optical rotatory dispersion                                    ORD   #organic                                                      org. ounce (unit)                                                    oz   #oxidation                                                  oxidn. Pariser-Parr-Pople                                             PPP    partial neglect of differential overlap                       PNDO    parts per billion (unit)                                       ppb    parts per million (unit)                                       ppm    pascal (unit)                                                   Pa    perturbational molecular orbital                               PMO    phenyl                                                          Ph   #physical(ly)                                                 phys. pint (unit)                                                     pt    poise (unit)                                                     P    polymerisation                                              polymn   polymerised                                                 polymd   polymerising                                                polymg  #polymerization                                             polymn.   #polymerized                                                polymd.   #polymerizing                                               polymg.   #positive(ly)                                                  pos. potential difference                                           p.d. pound (unit)                                                    lb    pounds per square inch (unit)                                  psi    pounds per square inch absolute (unit)                        psia    pounds per square inch gage (unit)                            psig   #powdered                                                     powd.   #precipitate                                                   ppt.   #precipitated                                                 pptd.   #precipitating                                                pptg.   #precipitation                                                pptn. preparation                                                  prepn. prepare                                                       prep. prepared                                                     prepd. preparing                                                    prepg.   #production                                                  prodn. propyl (normal)                                                  Pr   #purification                                               purifn. qualitative(ly)                                               qual.   #quantitative(ly)                                            quant. quart (unit)                                                    qt    radioimmunoassay                                               RIA    random phase approximation                                     RPA   #reduction                                                    redn. reference                                                      ref. reflection high energy electron diffraction                   RHEED    reproduction                                               reprodn. resolution                                                  resoln.   #respective(ly)                                               resp. respiratory quotient                                            RQ    restricted Hartree-Fock                                        RHF    revolutions per minute (unit)                                  rpm    ribonuclease                                                 RNase    ribonucleic acid                                               RNA    ribosomal RNA                                                 rRNA    roentgen (unit)                                                  R    roentgen equivalent man (unit)                                 rem    roentgen equivalent physical (unit)                            rep    saponification                                              sapon. saponified                                                 sapond. saponifying                                                sapong. saturate                                                      sat.   #saturated                                                   satd. saturated calomel electrode                                   SCE    saturating                                                   satg.   #saturation                                                  satn. scanning electron microscopy                                  SEM    second (unit)                                                   s    self-consistent field                                         SCF    separate(ly)                                                  sep. separated                                                    sepd. separating                                                   sepg. separation                                                   sepn. siemens (unit)                                                  S    Slater-type orbital                                           STO   #solubility*                                                 soly.   #soluble                                                      sol.   #solution                                                    soln. specific gravity                                           sp. gr. specific volume                                           sp. vol. specific weight                                            sp. wt. standard                                                      std. steradian (unit)                                               sr    stokes (unit)                                                  St    subcutaneous(ly)                                              s.c.   #symmetric(al)(ly)                                            sym. tablespoon (unit)                                             tbs    teaspoon (unit)                                               tsp   #technical(ly)                                               tech. temperature                                                  temp. tesla (unit)                                                    T    tetrahydrofuran                                               THF    theoretical(ly)                                             theor. thermodynamic(s)                                         thermodn. thyroid-stimulating hormone                                   TSH    titration                                                   titrn. triethylaminoethyl cellulose                       TEAE-cellulose    triphosphopyridine nucleotide                                NADP    ultraviolet                                                    UV    United States Pharmacopeia                                    USP    unrestricted Hartree-Fock                                     UHF    uridine 5'-diphosphate                                        UDP    uridine 5'-monophosphate                                      UMP    uridine 5'-triphosphate                                       UTS    UV photoelectron spectroscopy                                 UPS    volt (unit)                                                     V    volume                                                       vol. watt (unit)                                                     W    weber (unit)                                                   Wb    week (unit)                                                    wk    weight                                                        wt. x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy                              XPS    yard (unit)                                                    yd    year (unit)                                                    yr    zero differential overlap                                     ZDO   

* 术语的复数不能通过添加“s”进行自动缩写。

# 如有前缀,这些词通常会缩写。例如,请参阅列表 A 之前的“一些常见前缀术语的缩写”列表。

** 有关计算机可读文件中的表示,请参阅“计算机可读文件中字符和符号列表”。

列表 B

A

ampere (unit)

angstrom (unit)

 

abs.

absolute

abstr.

abstract

a.c.

alternating current

ACTH

adrenocorticotropin

addn.

addition

addnl.

additional(ly)

ADP

adenosine 5'-diphosphate

alc.

alcohol(ic)

aliph.

aliphatic

alk.

alkaline

alky.

alkalinity

AMP

adenosine 5'-monophosphate

amt.

amount

amu

atomic mass unit

anal.

analysis, analytical(ly)

anhyd.

anhydrous

AO

atomic orbital

app.

apparatus

approx.

approximate(ly)

approxn.

approximation

APW

augmented plane wave

aq.

aqueous

arom.

aromatic

assoc.

associate

assocd.

associated

assocg.

associating

assocn.

association

asym.

asymmetric(al)(ly)

at.

atomic

atm

atmosphere (unit)

atm.

atmospheric

ATP

adenosine 5'-triphosphate

ATPase

adenosine triphosphatase

av.

average

AVE

all valence electron

bbl

barrel (unit)

bcc.

body centered cubic

BCS

bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer

BOD

biochemical oxygen demand

b.p.

boiling point

Bq

becquerel (unit)

Btu

British thermal unit

Bu

butyl (normal)

bu

bushel (unit)

mB

Bohr magneton (unit)

C

coulomb (unit)

C

degree Celsius (centigrade) (unit)

cal

calorie (unit)

calc.

calculate

calcd.

calculated

calcg.

calculating

calcn.

calculation

cAMP

cyclic AMP

c.d.

current density

CD

circular dichroism

CDP

cytidine 5'-diphosphate

CEPA

coupled electron pair approximation

cfm

cubic feet per minute (unit)

cGMP

cyclic GMP

chem.

chemical(ly), chemistry

CI

configuration interaction

Ci

curie (unit)

clin.

clinical(ly)

CM-cellulose

carboxymethyl cellulose

CMP

cytidine 5'-monophosphate

CNDO

complete neglect of differential overlap

CoA

coenzyme A

COD

chemical oxygen demand

coeff.

coefficient

com.

commercial(ly)

compd.

compound

compn.

composition

ConA

concanavalin A

conc.

concentrate

concd.

concentrated

concg.

concentrating

concn.

concentration

cond.

conductivity

const.

constant

contg.

containing

cor.

corrected

CP

chemically pure

CPA

coherent potential approximation

crit.

critical

cryst.

crystalline

crystd

crystallised

crystg

crystallising

crystn

crystallisation

crystd.

crystallized

crystg.

crystallizing

crystn.

crystallization

CTP

cytidine 5'-triphosphate

cwt

hundred weight (unit)

D

debye unit

d.

density

d.c.

direct current

DEAE-cellulose

diethylaminoethyl cellulose

decomp.

decompose

decompd.

decomposed

decompg.

decomposing

decompn.

decomposition

degrdn.

degradation

deriv.

derivative

det.

determine

detd.

determined

detg.

determining

detn.

determination

diam.

diameter

dil.

dilute

dild.

diluted

dilg.

diluting

diln.

dilution

DIM

diatomics-in-molecules

dissoc.

dissociate

dissocd.

dissociated

dissocg.

dissociating

dissocn.

dissociation

distd.

distilled

distg.

distilling

distn.

distillation

DMF

dimethylformamide

DMSO

dimethyl sulfoxide

DNA

deoxyribonucleic acid

DNase

deoxyribonuclease

d.p.

degree of polymerization

dpm

disintegrations per minute (unit)

DTA

differential thermal analysis

ECG

electrocardiogram

ED

effective dose

EDTA

ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid

EEG

electroencephalogram

EHMO

extended Hueckel molecular orbital

elec.

electric(al)(ly)

ELISA

enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

emf.

electromotive force

emu

electromagnetic unit

equil.

equilibrium

equiv

equivalent (unit)

equiv.

equivalent

esp.

especially

ESR

electron spin resonance, electron paramagnetic resonance

est.

estimate

estd.

estimated

estg.

estimating

estn.

estimation

esu

electrostatic unit

Et

ethyl

eV

electron volt (unit)

evap.

evaporate

evapd.

evaporated

evapg.

evaporating

evapn.

evaporation

examd.

examined

examg.

examining

examn.

examination

expt.

experiment

exptl.

experimental(ly)

ext.

extract

extd.

extracted

extg.

extracting

extn.

extraction

F

farad

F

degree Fahrenheit (unit)

FAD

flavin adenine dinucleotide

fcc.

face centered cubic

fermn.

fermentation

FMN

flavin mononucleotide

f.p.

freezing point

FSGO

floating spherical Gaussian orbital

FSH

follicle-stimulating hormone

ft

foot (unit)

ft-lb

foot-pound (unit)

g

gram (unit)

g

gravitational constant

G

gauss (unit)

gal

gallon (unit)

GDP

guanosine 5'-diphosphate

GeV

billion electron volts (unit)

GMP

guanosine 5'-monophosphate

GTO

Gaussian-type orbital

GTP

guanosine 5'-triphosphate

Gy

gray (absorbed radiation dose) (unit)

h

hour (unit)

H

henry (unit)

ha

hectare (unit)

HAM

hydrogenic atoms in molecules

Hb

hemoglobin

hcp

hexagonal close-packed

HMO

Hueckel molecular orbital

HOMO

highest occupied molecular orbital

Hz

hertz (cycles/sec) (unit)

ICSH

interstitial cell-stimulating hormone

ID

inhibitory dose

IDP

inosine 5'-diphosphate

IEHMO

iterative extended Hueckel molecular orbital

IEPA

independent electron pair approximation

Ig

immunoglobulin

i.m.

intramuscular(ly)

IMP

inosine 5'-monophosphate

in.

inch (unit)

INDO

intermediate neglect of differential overlap

i.p.

intraperitoneal(ly)

IR

infrared

irradn.

irradiation

ITP

inosine 5'-triphosphate

IU

international unit

i.v.

intravenous(ly)

J

joule (unit)

K

kelvin (unit)

L

liter (unit)

lab.

laboratory

lb

pound (unit)

LCAO

linear combination of atomic orbitals

LCFC

linear combination of fragment configuration

LD

lethal dose

LEED

low energy electron diffraction

LH

luteinizing hormone

liq.

liquid

lm

lumen (unit)

LUMO

lowest unoccupied molecular orbital

lx

lux (unit)

m

meter (unit)

m

olal (unit)

M

molar (unit)

m.

melts at, melting at

manuf.

manufacture

manufd.

manufactured

manufg.

manufacturing

math.

mathematical(ly)

max.

maximum

MC-SCF

multiconfigurational self-consistent field

Me

methyl (not metal)

mech.

mechanical(ly) (not mechanism)

metab.

metabolism

MHD

magnetohydrodynamics

mi

mile (unit)

MIM

molecules-in-molecules

min

minute (unit)

min.

minimum(s)

misc.

miscellaneous

mixt.

mixture

MNDO

modified neglect of diatomic overlap

mo

month (unit)

MO

molecular orbital

mol

mole (unit)

mol.

molecule, molecular

m.p.

melting point

mph

miles per hour (unit)

mRNA

messenger RNA

MSH

melanocyte-stimulating hormone

Mx

maxwell (unit)

NAD

nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

NADP

nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate

NDDO

neglect of diatomic differential overlap

neg.

negative(ly)

NMN

nicotinamide mononucleotide

NMR

nuclear magnetic resonance

NNDO

neglect of nonbonded differential overlap

no.

number

NQR

nuclear quadruple resonance

obsd.

observed

Oe

oersted (unit)

O

ohm (unit)

ORD

optical rotatory dispersion

org.

organic

oxidn.

oxidation

oz

ounce

P

poise (unit)

Pa

pascal (unit)

p.d.

potential difference

Ph

phenyl

phys.

physical(ly)

PMO

perturbational molecular orbital

PNDO

partial neglect of differential overlap

polymd

polymerised

polymg

polymerising

polymn

polymerisation

polymd.

polymerized

polymg.

polymerizing

polymn.

polymerization

pos.

positive(ly)

powd.

powdered

ppb

parts per billion (unit)

ppm

parts per million (unit)

PPP

Pariser-Parr-Pople

ppt.

precipitate

pptd.

precipitated

pptg.

precipitating

pptn.

precipitation

Pr

propyl (normal)

prep.

prepare

prepd.

prepared

prepg.

preparing

prepn.

preparation

prodn.

production

psi

pounds per square inch (unit)

psia

pounds per square inch absolute (unit)

psig

pounds per square inch gage (unit)

pt

pint (unit)

purifn.

purification

qt

quart (unit)

qual.

Qualitative(ly)

quant.

quantitative(ly)

R

roentgen (unit)

redn.

reduction

ref.

reference

rem

roentgen equivalent man (unit)

rep

roentgen equivalent physical (unit)

reprodn.

reproduction

resoln.

resolution

resp.

respective(ly)

RHEED

reflection high energy electron diffraction

RHF

restricted Hartree-Fock

RNA

ribonucleic acid

RNase

ribonuclease

RPA

random phase approximation

rRNA

ribosomal RNA

rpm

revolutions per minute (unit)

RQ

respiratory quotient

s

second (unit)

S

siemens (unit)

sapon.

saponification

sapond.

saponified

sapong.

saponifying

sat.

saturate

satd.

saturated

satg.

saturating

satn.

saturation

s.c.

subcutaneous(ly)

SCE

saturated calomel electrode

SCF

self-consistent field

SEM

scanning electron microscopy

sep.

separate(ly)

sepd.

separated

sepg.

separating

sepn.

separation

sol.

soluble

soln.

solution

soly.

solubility

sp.

gr. specific gravity

sp.

vol. specific volume

sp.

wt. specific weight

sr

steradian (unit)

St

stokes (unit)

std.

standard

STO

Slater-type orbital

sym.

symmetric(al)(ly)

T

tesla (unit)

tbs

tablespoon (unit)

TEAE-cellulose

triethylaminoethyl cellulose

tech.

technical(ly)

temp.

temperature

theor.

theoretical(ly)

thermodn.

thermodynamic(s)

THF

tetrahydrofuran

titrn.

titration

TSH

thyroid-stimulating hormone

tsp

teaspoon (unit)

UDP

uridine 5'-diphosphate

UHF

unrestricted Hartree-Fock

UMP

uridine 5'-monophosphate

UPS

UV photoelectron spectroscopy

USP

United States Pharmacopeia

UTP

uridine 5'-triphosphate

UV

ultraviolet

V

volt (unit)

vol.

volume

W

watt (unit)

Wb

weber (unit)

wk

week (unit)

wt.

weight

XPS

x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

yd

yard (unit)

yr

year (unit)

ZDO

zero differential overlap

 

计算机可读文件中的字符和符号

在计算机可读文件中,罗马字母和数字的所有字符的表示方式与 CAS 出版物中的相同。但是,斜体、粗体或小写大写字母等未做特殊标记。另外,上标和下标也未特别标记,出现在一行中。

特殊规范用于表示计算机可读文件中的某些字符和符号。此类规范显示在以下列表中。可在计算机可读文件中搜索一些字符和符号。搜索术语时,使用不带句点的表示。

 

计算机可读文件中代表希腊字母的规范

 

符号

CAS 表示

描述

A

.ALPHA.

Alpha

B

.BETA.

Beta

Γ

.GAMMA.

Gamma

Δ

.DELTA.

Delta

E

.EPSILON.

Epsilon

Z

.ZETA.

Zeta

H

.ETA.

Eta

Θ

.THETA.

Theta

I

.IOTA.

Iota

K

.KAPPA.

Kappa

Λ

.LAMBDA.

Lambda

M

.MU.

Mu

N

.NU.

Nu

Ξ

.XI.

Xi

Ο

.OMICRON.

Omicron

Π

.PI.

Pi

P

.RHO.

Rho

Σ

.SIGMA.

Sigma

T

.TAU.

Tau

Y

.UPSILON.

Upsilon

Φ

.PHI.

Phi

X

.CHI.

Chi

Ψ

.PSI.

Psi

Ω

.OMEGA.

Omega

α

.alpha.

Alpha

β

.beta.

Beta

γ

.gamma.

Gamma

δ

.delta.

Delta

.vdelta.

Delta (variant)

ε

.epsilon.

Epsilon

ϵ

.vepsiln.

Epsilon (variant)

ζ

.zeta.

Zeta

η

.eta.

Eta

θ

.theta.

Theta

ϑ

.vtheta.

Theta (variant)

ι

.iota.

Iota

κ

.kappa.

Kappa

𝛞

.vkappa.

Kappa (variant)

λ

.lambda.

Lambda

μ

.mu.

Mu

ν

.nu.

Nu

ξ

.xi.

Xi

ο

.omicron.

Omicron

π

.pi.

Pi

ϖ

.vpi.

Pi (variant)

ρ

.rho.

Rho

σ

.sigma.

Sigma

ς

.vsigma.

Sigma (variant)

τ

.tau.

Tau

υ

.upsilon.

Upsilon

ϕ

.phi.

Phi

φ

.vphi.

Phi (variant)

χ

.chi.

Chi

ψ

.psi.

Psi

ω

.omega.

Omega

 

计算机可读文件中代表符号的规范

 

符号

CAS 表示

描述

Ð

.angle.

Angle

Å

.ANG.

Angstrom Unit

.apprch.

Approaches

.apprxeq.

Approximately Equal

~

.apprx.

Approximates (similar)

§

.bdintg.

Bounded Integral

.box.

Box

.bul.

Bullet (12 pt. center dot)

¢

.cents.

Cent

×

.cntdot.

Center Dot

Ì

.cntnd.

Contained in

É

.cntns.

Contains

©

.copyrgt.

Copyright

Ä

.crosprd.

Cross Product

.dag.

Dagger

-

-

Dash/Minus

°

.degree.

Degree

Ñ

.del.

Del (Nabla)

¸

.div.

Division

.dnreslt.

Does Not Result in

.dblarw.

Double Arrow

.dbldag.

Double Dagger

.dblharw.

Double Half Arrows

.++.

Double Plus

.dblvert.

Double Vertical

¯

.dwnarw.

Down Arrow

.fwdarw.

Forward Arrow

.fwdcarw.

Forward Curved Arrow

.gtoreq.

Greater Than or Equal

.gtorsim.

Greater Than or Similar

.ident.

Identity

.infin.

Infinity

.intg.

Integral

Ç

.intrsec.

Intersection

.ltbbrac.

Left Broken Bracket

£

.ltoreq.

Less Than or Equal

.ltorsim.

Less Than or Similar

 

.lbdabar.

Lambda Bar

Î

.member.

Member of

.-+.

Minus-Plus

.mchgt.

Much Greater Than

.mchlt.

Much Less Than

Ï

.notmbr.

Not a Member of

.noteq.

Not Equal

.sun.

Of Sun

.ovrhdot.

Overhead Dot

.ovrhdbr.

Overhead Double Bar

.permill.

Per Mill

^

.perp.

Perpendicular

h

.plcnst.

Planck’s Constant

±

.+-.

Plus-Minus

£

.pnd.

Pound Sterling

¢

Prime/apostrophe

Õ

.product.

Product

Ò

.RTM.

Registered Trade Mark

.rarw.

Reverse Arrow

.rcarw.

Reverse Curved Arrow

.rscharw.

Reverse Surface Chemistry Arrow

.rtbbrac.

Right Broken Bracket

A

.SCRIPTA.

Script A

.SCRIPTB.

Script B

C

.SCRIPTC.

Script C

D

.SCRIPTD.

Script D

E

.SCRIPTE.

Script E

.SCRIPTF.

Script F

G

.SCRIPTG.

Script G

.SCRIPTH.

Script H

.SCRIPTL.

Script L

P

.SCRIPTP.

Script P

.SCRIPTR.

Script R

S

.SCRIPTS.

Script S

.simeq.

Similar or Equal

.sqroot.

Square Root

.sum.

Sum

.scharw.

Surface Chemistry Arrow

Å

.sym.

Symmetry

«

.tautm.

Tautomer

  .thermod. Thermodynamics

´

.times.

Times

.tplbond.

Triple Bond

È

.union.

Union

.uparw.

Up Arrow

µ

.varies.

Varies

®

.vector.

Vector

¯

.hivin.

Vinculum (high)

_

.lovin.

Vinculum (low)

¥

.yen.

Yen

注意:修饰字符(例如,括线)的符号位于字符之前(即 A 变为.hivin.A)。

 

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