65 General Physical Chemistry
This section includes studies on general quantum and statistical mechanics; quantum liquids and solids; electronic structure; scattering and collisions of atoms, molecules, and ions; physical properties of atoms and molecules; collective properties of pure substances (phase transitions, vapor pressures, compressibilities, equations of state); transport properties (diffusion, electrodiffusion, viscosity); structures of liquids, gases, and amorphous solids. Studies on biochemical systems appear in the biochemistry sections; reaction mechanisms in Sections 22, 35, and 67; spectra in Section 73; statistical thermodynamics in Section 69; polarizability, electric moments, and electric transport properties in Section 76; kinetics of reactive collisions in Section 67; and solution structure in Section 68. Secondary effects of particle beams appear in sections appropriate to the principal phenomena under study.
66 Surface Chemistry and Colloids
This section includes fundamental studies of surface phenomena involving gas-liquid, liquid-liquid, gas-solid, liquid-solid, and solid-solid interactions: e.g., dispersions, emulsions, gels, sols, foams, fogs; membranes of nonbiochemical interest; sorption; surface and interfacial structure; chromatographic theory; and ion-exchange. Applied studies appear in the appropriate use-oriented sections. Surface-structure studies are placed here or in Section 75, depending on the degree of emphasis on the adsorbed state. Chemical analysis of surfaces or colloids for the purpose of determining composition and analytical chromatographic separations appear in Sections 79 or 80 or other appropriate sections that include analytical studies. Surface studies directly related to catalysis appear in sections appropriate to the reactions involved (e.g., Sections 22, 53, or 67).
67 Catalysis, Reaction Kinetics, and Inorganic Reaction Mechanisms
This section includes general studies on heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysis, catalyst preparation and properties, principles of reaction kinetics and kinetic isotope effects, and reaction mechanisms, as well as those specific studies on these topics that involve reactions of inorganic compounds and coordination complexes. Specific studies on these topics that involve biochemical systems appear in Sections 1-19; organic reactions in Sections 21-34 and 45; polymerization in Section 35; industrial inorganic preparations in Section 49; and petroleum refining and reactions involving fossil fuels in Section 51. Other sections where information on these topics appears are Section 59 (air pollution), Section 72 (electrochemistry), Section 74 (photochemistry), and sections that include chemical analyses.
68 Phase Equilibriums, Chemical Equilibriums, and Solutions
This section includes studies on phase equilibriums in organic, inorganic, and metallic systems; nonindustrial and nonanalytical extractions; gas-, liquid-, solid-phase chemical equilibriums (including formation and stability constants); and solution properties and structure. Studies on unary systems appear in Section 65; liquid crystals, solid solution structure, and crystallographic phase transitions in Section 75; chromatographic theory, ion exchange, and colloids in Section 66; industrial extractions and solid electrolytes in the use-related sections; physical organic studies in Section 22; biochemical equilibriums in the biochemical sections; gaseous-ion solvation, diffusion, and viscosity of solutions in Section 65; isotope exchange kinetics in Section 67; isotope separation in Section 71; and analytical methods involving equilibriums in Sections 79 and 80.
69 Thermodynamics, Thermochemistry, and Thermal Properties
This section includes studies on fundamental principles of thermodynamics (especially as applied to chemical systems); thermochemical and general thermal properties; and the methodologies of calorimetry, thermometry, and thermal analysis. Thermochemical and thermal properties of systems such as polymers, fossil fuels, etc., appear in sections appropriate to the subject (e.g., 36, 39, 51). Kinetic activation parameters appear in sections appropriate to the processes (e.g., 22, 65, 67); engineering studies and those concerned with the technology of energy conversion and storage in Sections 47, 48, and 52; and thermal effects such as thermal diffusion, thermooptics, thermography, and thermoelectricity in sections appropriate to the principal phenomena under study (e.g., 65, 73, 74, 76).
70 Nuclear Phenomena
This section includes basic studies on nuclear chemistry and physics; elementary-particle physics; exotic chemical entities, such as mesonic atoms and positronium species; and astrophysics of such topics as cosmic rays, stellar nucleosynthesis, and cosmology. Technology aspects of nuclear chemistry and physics, including patent abstracts, and elementary-particle interactions in bulk matter are included in Section 71. Particle studies of material characteristics appear in the appropriate sections (e.g., 65, 75, 76, 77); labeling of compounds by other than recoil reactions in the appropriate preparative sections; and spectral aspects of astrophysics in Section 73.
71 Nuclear Technology
This section includes materials and technology required for the design, construction, and operation of nuclear reactors, accelerators, and nuclear explosive devices. Health physics, radiation monitoring devices, dosimetry, radiation effects in nuclear technology materials and systems, nuclear science patents, radioactive waste, and ion, particle, and radiation interactions in bulk matter also appear in this section. Radioactive fallout effects on biological systems and its environmental distribution are included in Sections 8 and 59, respectively. Chemical analysis of nuclear materials appears in Section 79 or 80; radiolysis in Section 74; radiopharmaceutical preparations and uses in Section 63; and nonfusion plasmas in Section 76.
This section includes theory and certain practical aspects of the principles of electrochemistry, such as the kinetics and mechanism of electrode reactions. Studies of the theory and/or mechanism of corrosion appear here, while corrosion studies in which the primary interest is in the metal are included in the metallurgical sections. Electrochemical cells are included here, except for cells explicitly intended as power sources, which are included in Section 52. Industrial electrochemical processes included here are anodic processes (electromachining), cathodic processes (electroplating), electrowinning, and brine and water electrolysis. Nonindustrial syntheses appear here if the method of obtaining a product, rather than the product itself, is stressed.
73 Optical, Electron, and Mass Spectroscopy and Other Related Properties
This section includes spectroscopic studies on absorption, emission, and reflection in the x-ray, ultraviolet, visible, infrared, microwave, and radio-wave regions, including Raman scattering and luminescence. Also included are electron, Moessbauer, mass, and astrophysical spectroscopy; other optical properties (e.g., birefringence, light scattering); and quantum amplifiers (lasers and masers). Spectroscopy intended primarily as an investigative tool appears in sections appropriate to the major emphasis of the studies: e.g., in determining mechanisms of chemical changes in organic compounds and structural determinations of organic compounds in Section 22; in determining molecular structures and reaction mechanism of inorganic compounds in Sections 65, 67, and 78; of polymers in the macromolecular sections; and in chemical analysis in Section 79, 80, or other sections that include analytical studies.
74 Radiation Chemistry, Photochemistry, Photographic, and Other Reprographic Processes.
This section includes studies of chemical and physical changes induced by ionizing high-energy radiation and visible and ultraviolet light; silver halide photography and nonsilver imaging systems; electrophotography and other copying processes; information recording and storage. Also included here are printing, photoresists, imaging and display devices, and holography. Radiation effects on biological systems and in nuclear technology systems appear in Sections 8 and 71, respectively. Chemical analysis of materials of interest to this section appears in Sections 79 or 80. Studies in which radiation is used only to effect a chemical reaction are included in the appropriate sections, and preparations of organic compounds used in photographic or reprographic processes in the appropriate synthetic organic chemistry sections.
75 Crystallography and Liquid Crystals
This section includes such aspects of crystal chemistry as crystallization and growth of single crystals; structure, phase transitions, mechanical properties; and the methodologies of structure determinations. Also included here are the structures, transitions, and physical properties of mesomorphic phases. Crystallography of polymers is included in Sections 36 and 39; structures of minerals in Section 53; crystallization of technical glasses in Section 57; metallurgical aspects of crystallization, transitions, defect structures, and mechanical properties in Sections 55 and 56; industrial crystallizers in such sections as 44 and 47; crystallographically determined molecular structures of organic natural products in the appropriate organic sections; and applications and such physical properties as thermodynamic, optical, electric, etc., in sections appropriate to those types of studies (e.g., 69, 73, 76).
76 Electric Phenomena
This section includes studies on electrical materials and such phenomena as conduction, insulation, capacitance, polarizability, electric moments, gas discharges and plasmas, electron and ion emission, and devices related thereto. Electrochemistry is included in Section 72; electrical and electrokinetic properties of colloids and surfaces in Section 66; electrical properties of polymers (other than doped polymers) in Sections 36-39; and devices related to power engineering and thermonuclear plasmas in Sections 52 and 71, respectively. Electric phenomena as they relate to biological systems appear in the biochemistry sections, and such secondary electrical effects as electrooptics and electrophotography in sections appropriate to the principal phenomena under study, (e.g., 73, 74).
77 Magnetic Phenomena
This section includes studies on materials of interest for their magnetic properties (e.g., ferrous alloys, ferrites) and such aspects of magnetism as domain structure, hysteresis, magnetostriction, thermomagnetic effects, magnets, magnetohydrodynamics, electron and nuclear resonances, and magnetic relaxation. Technological applications of magnetohydrodynamics appear in Sections 52 and 71; chemical analysis of magnetic materials and use of magnetic phenomena in analysis in Sections 79 and 80; magnetic properties of polymers in Section 36; and galvanomagnetic properties such as the Hall effect and magnetoresistance in Section 76.
78 Inorganic Chemicals and Reactions
This section includes the nonindustrial preparation, purification, and reactions of inorganic substances: elements (including carbon); inorganic acids, bases, and salts; synthetic minerals; inclusion compounds; charge-transfer complexes; coordination compounds containing inorganic and organic ligands; nonmetal and metalloid compounds; and carbon-containing compounds such as the carbon oxides, metal carbonyls, carbonates and transition metal carboxylates. Industrial preparation of inorganic compounds is included in Section 49. Compounds with carbon-metal and carbon-metalloid bonds appear in Section 29. Chemical analysis of inorganic compounds appears in Section 79. Chemical and physical properties used primarily to characterize new compounds are included here, but the physical properties of known compounds appear in the appropriate physical chemistry sections.
79 Inorganic Analytical Chemistry
This section includes general analytical methods, as well as methods, apparatus, reagents, and separations intended for the detection and determination of constituents of inorganic materials, except when the emphasis is on organic analytes, which are included in Section 80. Analysis of biological samples or systems is included in Section 9 or other appropriate biochemical sections, forensic analysis in Section 4, archaeological analysis and analysis of art objects in Section 20, and pharmaceutical analysis in Section 64. Analysis of materials covered by the macromolecular sections is included in Sections 35-46, and of materials covered by Sections 50, 51, and 57-62 in those sections.
80 Organic Analytical Chemistry
This section includes analytical methods, apparatus, reagents, and separations intended for the detection and determination of constituents of organic materials or when the emphasis is on organic analytes. Analysis of biological samples or systems is included in Section 9 or other appropriate biochemical sections, forensic analysis in Section 4, archaeological analysis and analysis of art objects in Section 20, and pharmaceutical analysis in Section 64. Analysis of materials covered by the macromolecular sections is included in Sections 35-46, and of materials covered by Sections 50, 51, and 57-62 in those sections.