CAS Standard Abbreviations & Acronyms

Introduction

In CAS databases, certain abbreviations and acronyms are automatically generated for terms in the abstract text, the keyword phrases, and the text modifying phrases for index entries. Most of these abbreviations have been used prior to 1982. Users  need to know these standard abbreviations and acronyms in order to be able to use them in search profiles and identify them in text.

In this document, automatically generated abbreviations and acronyms in CAS publications and services are arranged in two lists. To guide users to abbreviations they need to include in their search profiles, Listing A is arranged in the alphabetical order of the full terms which are abbreviated. Do not use periods when searching CAS abbreviations or acronyms online. To provide explanation of abbreviations encountered in text, Listing B is arranged in the alphabetical order of abbreviations and acronyms.

Examples and Lists included on this web page:

In addition to the terms specifically listed as standard abbreviations and acronyms, abbreviations are automatically generated for the following types of words:

  1. Words formed by adding prefixes to terms normally abbreviated may also be abbreviated, e.g., "microchem." for "microchemical." In Listing A, words indicated by # on the left are those which, if prefixed, are generally abbreviated. (See, Abbreviations for some common prefixed terms)
  2. Words ending in "-ology" or "-ologic(al)(ly)" are abbreviated "-ol.," e.g., "geol." for "geology." (See examples)
  3. Words ending in "-ography" or "-ographic(al)(ly)" are abbreviated "-og.," E.g., "chromatog." For "chromatographic." (See examples)
  4. Plurals of noun abbreviations are formed by adding "s" to the singular abbreviation, e.g., "derivs." For "derivatives." Two exceptions are cases when a single abbreviation is designated to show both the singular and plural forms (e.g., "equil." For "equilibrium(s)" and words marked on the list with an asterisk (*) whose plurals are not abbreviated.
  5. Verb forms that require "s" are abbreviated by adding "s" to the listed abbreviation, e.g., "Compd. decomps. on heating" for "Compound decomposes on heating."

Standard abbreviations and acronyms are not automatically generated for terms appearing in titles. However, in titles abbreviations used by the author may appear.

In addition to the standard, automatically generated abbreviations and acronyms, other acronyms, atomic symbols (e.g., Cl, Sb), and molecular formulas (e.g., NaCl) may also be used in CAS publications and services.

Examples of some terms ending in "-ology" that are abbreviated "-ol."

    anesthesiology                       limnology 
bacteriology meteorology
biology methodology
cardiology morphology
chronology nephrology
cytology neurology
dermatology oncology
ecology ophthalmology
endocrinology pathology
enzymology petrology
epidemiology pharmacology
etiology physiology
gastroenterology radiology
geology rheology
gynecology sedimentology
hematology serology
histology technology
homology teratology
hydrology topology
immunology virology

Abbreviation "-ol." is also applied to the adjective form, e.g., "pharmacologic(al)," the adverb form, e.g., "pharmacologically" and prefixed forms, e.g., "neuropharmacology" of terms ending in "-ology."

 

Examples of some terms ending in "-ography" that are abbreviated "-og.":

angiography            metallography 
bibliography micrography
biography oceanography
cardiography petrography
cholecystography photography
chromatography planography
crystallography polarography
derivatography radiography
electroencephalography reprography
electrography spectrography
fractography thermography
fragmentography tomography
geography topography
holography xerography
lithography

Abbreviation "og." is also applied to the adjective form, e.g., "geographic(al)," the adverb form, e.g., "geographically," and prefixed forms, e.g., "paleogeography" of terms ending in "-ography."

 

Abbreviations for some common prefixed terms *

anal. (analysis) 
  electroanal.
  immunoanal.
  microanal. 
  radioanal.
  thermoanal.
 
at. [atomic(al)(ly)]
  diat.
  interat. 
  monoat.
  polyat.
  tetraat.
  triat. 
 
chem. [chemical(ly), chemistry]
  agrochem. 
  biochem.
  cytochem.
  electrochem. 
  geochem.
  histochem.
  immunochem. 
  neurochem.
  petrochem.
  photochem. 
  physicochem.
  radiochem.
  spectrochem. 
  thermochem.
 
clin. [clinic(al)(ly)] 
  preclin.
  subclin.
 
cond. (conductivity) 
  electrocond.
  magnetocond.
  photocond. 
  semicond.
  supercond.
  thermocond.
 
crystn. (crystallization)
  cocrystn.
  electrocrystn. 
  recrystn.
decompn. (decomposition)
  photodecompn. 
 
degrdn. (degradation)
  biodegrdn. 
  photodegrdn.
  thermodegrdn.
 
detn. (determination)
  immunodetn.
  microdetn. 
 
dissocn. (dissociation)
  photodissocn. 
  predissocn.
 
elec. [electric(al)(ly)] 
  acoustoelec.
  bioelec.
  dielec. 
  ferroelec.
  isoelec.
  paraelec. 
  photodielec.
  photoelec.
  piezoelec. 
  pyroelec.
  thermoelec.
 
equil. (equilibrium) 
  disequil.
  nonequil.
  preequil.
 
extn. (extraction)
  coextn.
  electroextn. 
  reextn.
 
Hb (hemoglobin)
  cargonylHb 
  carboxyHb
  deoxyHb
  ferriHb
  metHb 
  oxyHb
  sulfHb
 
irradn. (irradiation) 
  postirradn.
  preirradn.
 
mech. [mechanic(al)(ly)]
  biomech.
  electromech. 
  micromech.
  photomech.
  physicomech. 
  thermomech.
 
mol. (molecule, molecular) 
  bimol.
  intermol.
  intramol.
  macromol. 
  monomol.
  supermol.
  supramol.
  turbomol. 
  unimol.
 
org. [organic(ally)]
  bioinorg. 
  bioorg.
  chloroorg.
  electroorg. 
  fluoroorg.
  inorg.
  metalloorg.
  microorg. 
oxidn. (oxidation)
  autoxidn.
  biooxidn. 
  cooxidn.
  deoxidn.
  electrooxidn. 
  epoxidn.
  peroxidn.
  photooxidn.
  reoxidn. 
  thermooxidn.
 
pptn. (precipitation)
  copptn. 
  immunopptn.
 
soly. (solubility)
  hydrosoly. 
  insoly.
  liposoly.
 
sym. [symmetry, symmetric(al)(ly)]
  asym.
  unsym. 

* See "Standard Abbreviations and Acronyms," Listing A for a complete list of terms which, if prefixed, are generally abbreviated.

Automatic retrieval of CAS abbreviations on STN

In CAS bibliographic files on STN, e.g., CAplus or CA, you can retrieve CAS abbreviations automatically. Simply enter the commands SET ABB ON and SET PLURAL ON at an arrow prompt.

When you SET ABB ON, abbreviations are generated for all terms searched in the Basic Index, or in the specific fields that comprise the Basic Index. A separate posting line appears if any occurrences of an abbreviation are found. When you SET PLURAL ON, you also automatically retrieve plural abbreviations.

The default for SET ABB is OFF. To include abbreviations for all SEARCH and QUERY commands in your session, enter SET ABB ON at an arrow prompt. To retain the ON setting beyond the current session, enter SET ABB ON PERM.

Not all CAS standard abbreviations are available with SET ABB. CAS abbreviations for most units and multiword terms have been removed to keep false drops and irrelevant retrievals to a minimum. To see a list of terms for which abbreviations will be added, enter HELP ABB at an arrow prompt (=>) in the file. For more information on this SET command, enter HELP SET ABB at an arrow prompt.

 

SET ABB ON to retrieve CAS abbreviations

=> SET ABB ON PERM SET COMMAND COMPLETED
=> SET PLURAL ON PERM SET COMMAND COMPLETED
=> S PRECIPITAT? 35280 PRECIPITAT?
75559 PPT
30694 PPTS
98131 PPT
(PPT OR PPTS) 59648 PPTD
2 PPTDS
59648 PPTD
(PPTD OR PPTDS)
13101 PPTG
131576 PPTN 1980 PPTNS
132847 PPTN
(PPTN OR PPTNS)
L1 258048 PRECIPITAT? (PRECIPITAT? OR PPT OR PPTD OR PPTG OR PPTN)

Online help message

=> FILE CAPLUS => HELP ABB  When you SET ABBREVIATONS ON, abbreviations are automatically  generated for the terms in the following list when the term or a  truncated stem that would encompass a listed term is searched in the  Basic Index, or in the specific fields that comprise the Basic Index. 
Examples: => SET ABB ON
SET COMMAND COMPLETED => S CONCENTRAT?
149313 CONCENTRAT? 50824 CONC
115142 CONCD
9541 CONCG
1035004 CONCN L2 1221846 CONCENTRAT? (CONCENTRAT? OR CONC OR CONCD OR CONCG OR CONCN) For more information on this SET option, enter HELP SET ABB at an arrow prompt (=>). For a list of fields in the Basic Index, enter HELP SFIELDS at an arrow prompt in this file. ABSOLUTE DILUTED PRECIPITATE ABSTRACT DILUTING PRECIPITATED ADDITION DILUTION PRECIPITATING ADDITIONAL DIMETHYLFORMAMIDE PRECIPITATION ADDITIONALLY DISSOCIATE PREPARATION ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN DISSOCIATED PREPARE ALCOHOL DISSOCIATING PREPARED ALCOHOLIC DISSOCIATION PREPARING ALIPHATIC DISTILLATION PRODUCTION ALKALINE DISTILLED PROPYL ALKALINITY DISTILLING PURIFICATION DECOMPOSING ORGANIC FLAVIN ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE DECOMPOSITION OXIDATION FLAVIN MONONUCLEOTIDE DEGRADATION PHENYL INHIBITORY DOSE DEOXYRIBONUCLEASE PHYSICAL LETHAL DOSE DERIVATIVE PHYSICALLY LUTEINIZING HORMONE DETERMINATION POLYMERIZATION NICOTINAMIDE MONONUCLEOTIDE DETERMINE POLYMERIZED NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE DETERMINED POLYMERIZING NUCLEAR QUADRUPOLE RESONANCE DETERMINING POSITIVE RIBONUCLEIC ACID DIAMETER POSITIVELY SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY DILUTE POWDERED UV PHOTOELECTRON

Listing A

absolute                                                     abs. 
 abstract                                                   abstr. 
#addition                                                    addn. 
 additional(ly)                                             addnl. 
 adenosine 5'-diphosphate                                      ADP 
 adenosine 5'-monophosphate                                    AMP 
 adenosine triphosphatase                                   ATPase 
 adenosine 5'-triphosphate                                     ATP 
 adrenocorticotropin                                          ACTH 
#alcohol(ic)                                                   alc. 
#aliphatic                                                   aliph. 
 alkaline                                                      alk. 
 alkalinity*                                                  alky. 
 all valence electron                                          AVE 
 alternating current                                           a.c. 
 amount                                                        amt. 
 ampere (unit)                                                   A 
#analysis*                                                    anal. 
#analytical(ly)                                               anal. 
 angstrom unit                                                  ** 
 anhydrous                                                   anhyd. 
 apparatus                                                     app. 
 approximate(ly)                                            approx. 
 approximation                                             approxn. 
#aqueous                                                        aq. 
#aromatic                                                     arom. 
 associate                                                   assoc. 
 associated                                                 assocd. 
 associating                                                assocg. 
#association                                                assocn. 
 asymmetric(al)(ly)                                           asym. 
 atmosphere (unit)                                             atm. 
 atmospheric                                                   atm. 
#atomic                                                        at. 
 atomic mass unit                                              amu 
 atomic orbital                                                 AO 
 augmented plane wave                                          APW 
 average                                                        av. 
 Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer                                     BCS 
 barrel (unit)                                                 bbl 
 becquerel (unit)                                               Bq 
 billion electron volts (unit)                                 GeV 
 biochemical oxygen demand                                     BOD 
 body centered cubic                                           bcc. 
 Bohr magneton (unit)                                          mB** 
 boiling point                                                 b.p. 
 British thermal unit                                           Btu 
 bushel (unit)                                                   bu 
 butyl (normal)                                                  Bu 
#calculate                                                    calc. 
#calculated                                                  calcd. 
#calculating                                                 calcg. 
#calculation                                                 calcn. 
 calorie (unit)                                                 cal 
 carboxymethyl cellulose                              CM- cellulose 
#chemical(ly)                                                 chem. 
 chemical oxygen demand                                         COD 
 chemically pure                                                 CP 
#chemistry                                                    chem. 
 circular dichroism                                              CD 
#clinical(ly)                                                 clin. 
 coefficient                                                 coeff. 
#coenzyme A                                                     CoA 
 coherent potential approximation                               CPA 
 commercial(ly)                                                com. 
 complete neglect of 
      differential overlap                                     CNDO 
 composition                                                 compn. 
 compound                                                    compd. 
 concanavalin A                                                ConA 
#concentrate                                                  conc. 
#concentrated                                                concd. 
#concentrating                                               concg. 
#concentration                                               concn. 
#conductivity*                                                cond. 
 configuration interaction                                       CI 
 constant                                                    const. 
 containing                                                  contg. 
 corrected                                                     cor. 
 coulomb (unit)                                                   C 
 coupled electron pair approximation                           CEPA 
#critical                                                     crit. 
#crystalline                                                 cryst. 
 crystallisation                                             crystn
 crystallised                                                crystd
 crystallising                                               crystg
#crystallization                                            crystn. 
#crystallized                                               crystd. 
#crystallizing                                              crystg. 
 cubic feet per minute (unit)                                   cfm 
 curie (unit)                                                    Ci 
 current density                                               c.d. 
 cyclic AMP                                                    cAMP 
 cyclic GMP                                                    cGMP 
 cytidine 5'-diphosphate                                        CDP 
 cytidine 5'-monophosphate                                      CMP 
 cytidine 5'-triphosphate                                       CTP 
 debye unit                                                       D 
 decompose                                                  decomp. 
 decomposed                                                decompd. 
 decomposing                                               decompg. 
#decomposition                                             decompn. 
#degradation                                                degrdn. 
 degree Celsius centigrade (unit)                              C** 
 degree Fahrenheit (unit)                                      F** 
 degree Kelvin                                                 K 
 degree of polymerization                                      d.p. 
 density                                                         d. 
 deoxyribonuclease                                            DNase 
 deoxyribonucleic acid                                          DNA 
 derivative                                                  deriv. 
#determination                                                detn. 
 determine                                                     det. 
#determined                                                   detd. 
 determining                                                  detg. 
 diameter                                                     diam. 
 diatomics-in-molecules                                         DIM 
 diethylaminoethyl cellulose                         DEAE-cellulose 
 differential thermal analysis                                  DTA 
 dilute                                                        dil. 
 diluted                                                      dild. 
 diluting                                                     dilg. 
 dilution                                                     diln. 
 dimethylformamide                                              DMF 
 diphosphopyridine nucleotide                                   NAD 
 direct current                                                d.c. 
 disintegrations per minute (unit)                              dpm 
 dissociate                                                 dissoc. 
 dissociated                                               dissocd. 
 dissociating                                              dissocg. 
#dissociation                                              dissocn. 
#distillation                                                distn. 
#distilled                                                   distd. 
#distilling                                                  distg. 
 effective dose                                                 ED 
#electric(al)(ly)                                             elec. 
 electrocardiogram                                             ECG 
 electroencephalogram                                          EEG 
 electromagnetic unit                                          emu 
 electromotive force                                           emf. 
 electron paramagnetic resonance                               ESR 
 electron spin resonance                                       ESR 
 electron volt (unit)                                           eV 
 electrostatic unit                                            esu 
 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay                           ELISA 
#equilibrium(s)                                              equil. 
 equivalent (unit)                                           equiv. 
#equivalent                                                  equiv. 
 especially                                                    esp. 
 estimate                                                      est. 
 estimated                                                    estd. 
 estimating                                                   estg. 
 estimation                                                   estn. 
 ethyl                                                          Et 
 ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid                              EDTA 
 evaporate                                                    evap. 
 evaporated                                                  evapd. 
 evaporating                                                 evapg. 
 evaporation                                                 evapn. 
#examination                                                 examn. 
#examined                                                    examd. 
#examining                                                   examg. 
 experiment                                                   expt. 
 experimental(ly)                                            exptl. 
 extended Hueckel molecular orbital                            EHMO 
 extract                                                       ext. 
 extracted                                                    extd. 
 extracting                                                   extg. 
#extraction                                                   extn. 
 face centered cubic                                           fcc. 
 farad (unit)                                                    F 
 fermentation                                                fermn. 
 flavin adenine dinucleotide                                   FAD 
 flavin mononucleotide                                         FMN 
 floating spherical Gaussian orbital                          FSGO 
 foot (unit)                                                    ft 
 foot-pound (unit)                                           ft-lb 
 follicle-stimulating hormone                                  FSH 
 freezing point                                                f.p. 
 gallon (unit)                                                 gal 
 gauss (unit)                                                    G 
 Gaussian-type orbital                                         GTO 
 gram (unit)                                                     g 
 gravitational constant                                          g 
 gray (absorbed radiation dose) (unit)                          Gy 
 guanosine 5'-diphosphate                                      GDP 
 guanosine 5'-monophosphate                                    GMP 
 guanosine 5'-triphosphate                                     GTP 
 hectare                                                        ha 
 henry                                                           H 
#hemoglobin                                                     Hb 
 hertz (cycles/sec) (unit)                                      Hz 
 hexagonal close-packed                                        hcp. 
 highest occupied molecular orbital                           HOMO 
 hour (unit)                                                     h 
 Hueckel molecular orbital                                     HMO 
 hundredweight (unit)                                          cwt 
 hydrogenic atoms in molecules                                 HAM 
 immunoglobulin                                                 Ig 
 inch (unit)                                                    in. 
 independent electron pair approximation                      IEPA 
 infrared                                                       IR 
 inhibitory dose                                                ID 
 inosine 5'-diphosphate                                        IDP 
 inosine 5'-monophosphate                                      IMP 
 inosine 5'-triphosphate                                       ITP 
 intermediate neglect of differential overlap                 INDO 
 international unit                                             IU 
 interstitial cell-stimulating hormone                        ICSH 
 intramuscular(ly)                                             i.m. 
 intraperitoneal(ly)                                           i.p. 
 intravenous(ly)                                               i.v. 
#irradiation                                                irradn. 
 iterative extended Hueckel molecular 
      orbital                                                 IEHMO 
 joule (unit)                                                     J 
 kelvin (unit)                                                    K 
 laboratory                                                     lab. 
 lethal dose                                                     LD 
 linear combination of atomic orbitals                         LCAO 
 linear combination of fragment 
      configuration                                            LCFC 
 liquid                                                         liq. 
 liter (unit)                                                     L 
 low energy electron diffraction                               LEED 
 lowest unoccupied molecular orbital                           LUMO 
 lumen (unit)                                                    lm 
 luteinizing hormone                                             LH 
 lux (unit)                                                      lx 
 magnetohydrodynamics                                           MHD 
 manufacture                                                  manuf. 
 manufactured                                                manufd. 
 manufacturing                                               manufg. 
 mathematical(ly)                                              math. 
 maximum(s)                                                     max. 
 maxwell (unit)                                                   Mx 
#mechanical(ly)                                                mech. 
 melanocyte-stimulating hormone                                 MSH 
 melting at                                                       m. 
 melting point                                                  m.p. 
 melts at                                                         m. 
 messenger RNA                                                 mRNA 
 metabolism                                                   metab. 
 meter (unit)                                                     m 
 methyl                                                          Me 
 mile (unit)                                                     mi 
 miles per hour (unit)                                          mph 
 minimum(s)                                                     min. 
 minute (unit)                                                  min 
 miscellaneous                                                 misc. 
#mixture                                                       mixt. 
 modified neglect of diatomic overlap                          MNDO 
 molal (unit)                                                     m 
 molar (unit)                                                     M 
 mole (unit)                                                    mol 
#molecular                                                      mol. 
 molecular orbital                                               MO 
#molecule                                                       mol. 
 molecules-in-molecules                                         MIM 
 month (unit)                                                    mo. 
 multiconfigurational self-consistent 
      field                                                  MC-SCF 
#negative(ly)                                                   neg. 
 neglect of diatomic differential overlap                      NDDO 
 neglect of nonbonded differential 
      overlap                                                  NNDO 
 nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide                              NAD 
 nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide 
      phosphate                                                NADP 
 nicotinamide mononucleotide                                    NMN 
 nuclear magnetic resonance                                     NMR 
 nuclear quadrupole resonance                                   NQR 
 number                                                          no. 
 observed                                                      obsd. 
 oersted (unit)                                                  Oe 
 ohm (unit)                                                     O ** 
 optical rotatory dispersion                                    ORD 
#organic                                                        org. 
 ounce (unit)                                                    oz 
#oxidation                                                    oxidn. 
 Pariser-Parr-Pople                                             PPP 
 partial neglect of differential overlap                       PNDO 
 parts per billion (unit)                                       ppb 
 parts per million (unit)                                       ppm 
 pascal (unit)                                                   Pa 
 perturbational molecular orbital                               PMO 
 phenyl                                                          Ph 
#physical(ly)                                                  phys. 
 pint (unit)                                                     pt 
 poise (unit)                                                     P 
 polymerisation                                               polymn
 polymerised                                                  polymd
 polymerising                                                 polymg
#polymerization                                              polymn. 
#polymerized                                                 polymd. 
#polymerizing                                                polymg. 
#positive(ly)                                                   pos. 
 potential difference                                           p.d. 
 pound (unit)                                                    lb 
 pounds per square inch (unit)                                  psi 
 pounds per square inch absolute (unit)                        psia 
 pounds per square inch gage (unit)                            psig 
#powdered                                                      powd. 
#precipitate                                                    ppt. 
#precipitated                                                  pptd. 
#precipitating                                                 pptg. 
#precipitation                                                 pptn. 
 preparation                                                  prepn. 
 prepare                                                       prep. 
 prepared                                                     prepd. 
 preparing                                                    prepg. 
#production                                                   prodn. 
 propyl (normal)                                                  Pr 
#purification                                                purifn. 
 qualitative(ly)                                               qual. 
#quantitative(ly)                                             quant. 
 quart (unit)                                                    qt 
 radioimmunoassay                                               RIA 
 random phase approximation                                     RPA 
#reduction                                                     redn. 
 reference                                                      ref. 
 reflection high energy electron 
      diffraction                                             RHEED 
 reproduction                                               reprodn. 
 resolution                                                  resoln. 
#respective(ly)                                                resp. 
 respiratory quotient                                            RQ 
 restricted Hartree-Fock                                        RHF 
 revolutions per minute (unit)                                  rpm 
 ribonuclease                                                 RNase 
 ribonucleic acid                                               RNA 
 ribosomal RNA                                                 rRNA 
 roentgen (unit)                                                  R 
 roentgen equivalent man (unit)                                 rem 
 roentgen equivalent 
      physical (unit)                                           rep 
 saponification                                              sapon. 
 saponified                                                 sapond. 
 saponifying                                                sapong. 
 saturate                                                      sat. 
#saturated                                                    satd. 
 saturated calomel electrode                                   SCE 
 saturating                                                   satg. 
#saturation                                                   satn. 
 scanning electron microscopy                                  SEM 
 second (unit)                                                   s 
 self-consistent field                                         SCF 
 separate(ly)                                                  sep. 
 separated                                                    sepd. 
 separating                                                   sepg. 
 separation                                                   sepn. 
 siemens (unit)                                                  S 
 Slater-type orbital                                           STO 
#solubility*                                                  soly. 
#soluble                                                       sol. 
#solution                                                     soln. 
 specific gravity                                           sp. gr. 
 specific volume                                           sp. vol. 
 specific weight                                            sp. wt. 
 standard                                                      std. 
 steradian (unit)                                               sr 
 stokes (unit)                                                  St 
 subcutaneous(ly)                                              s.c. 
#symmetric(al)(ly)                                             sym. 
 tablespoon (unit)                                             tbs 
 teaspoon (unit)                                               tsp 
#technical(ly)                                                tech. 
 temperature                                                  temp. 
 tesla (unit)                                                    T 
 tetrahydrofuran                                               THF 
 theoretical(ly)                                             theor. 
 thermodynamic(s)                                         thermodn. 
 thyroid-stimulating hormone                                   TSH 
 titration                                                   titrn. 
 triethylaminoethyl cellulose                       TEAE-cellulose 
 triphosphopyridine nucleotide                                NADP 
 ultraviolet                                                    UV 
 United States Pharmacopeia                                    USP 
 unrestricted Hartree-Fock                                     UHF 
 uridine 5'-diphosphate                                        UDP 
 uridine 5'-monophosphate                                      UMP 
 uridine 5'-triphosphate                                       UTS 
 UV photoelectron spectroscopy                                 UPS 
 volt (unit)                                                     V 
 volume                                                        vol. 
 watt (unit)                                                     W 
 weber (unit)                                                   Wb 
 week (unit)                                                    wk 
 weight                                                         wt. 
 x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy                              XPS 
 yard (unit)                                                    yd 
 year (unit)                                                    yr 
 zero differential overlap                                     ZDO 

* Terms whose plurals are not automatically abbreviated by adding "s."

# If prefixed, these words are generally abbreviated. For examples, see the list of "Abbreviations for some common prefixed terms" which precedes Listing A.

** For representation in computer-readable files see "Listing of Characters and Symbols in Computer-Readable Files."

Listing B

A                 ampere (unit) 
                 angstrom (unit) 
abs.              absolute
abstr.            abstract 
a.c.              alternating current 
ACTH              adrenocorticotropin 
addn.             addition
addnl.            additional(ly) 
ADP               adenosine 5'-diphosphate 
alc.              alcohol(ic)
aliph.            aliphatic 
alk.              alkaline
alky.             alkalinity 
AMP               adenosine 5'-monophosphate 
amt.              amount
amu               atomic mass unit 
anal.             analysis, analytical(ly) 
anhyd.            anhydrous
AO                atomic orbital 
app.              apparatus
approx.           approximate(ly) 
approxn.          approximation 
APW               augmented plane wave 
aq.               aqueous
arom.             aromatic 
assoc.            associate
assocd.           associated 
assocg.           associating
assocn.           association 
asym.             asymmetric(al)(ly)
at.               atomic 
atm               atmosphere (unit) 
atm.              atmospheric 
ATP               adenosine 5'-triphosphate 
ATPase            adenosine triphosphatase 
av.               average 
AVE               all valence electron 
bbl               barrel (unit) 
bcc.              body centered cubic 
BCS               bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer 
BOD               biochemical oxygen demand 
b.p.              boiling point 
Bq                becquerel (unit) 
Btu               British thermal unit 
Bu                butyl (normal) 
bu                bushel (unit) 
mB                Bohr magneton (unit) 
C                 coulomb (unit) 
C                degree Celsius (centigrade) (unit) 
cal               calorie (unit)
calc.             calculate 
calcd.            calculated
calcg.            calculating 
calcn.            calculation
cAMP              cyclic AMP 
c.d.              current density 
CD                circular dichroism 
CDP               cytidine 5'-diphosphate 
CEPA              coupled electron pair approximation 
cfm               cubic feet per minute (unit) 
cGMP              cyclic GMP 
chem.             chemical(ly), chemistry 
CI                configuration interaction 
Ci                curie (unit)
clin.             clinical(ly) 
CM-cellulose      carboxymethyl cellulose 
CMP               cytidine 5'-monophosphate 
CNDO              complete neglect of differential overlap 
CoA               coenzyme A 
COD               chemical oxygen demand 
coeff.            coefficient
com.              commercial(ly) 
compd.            compound
compn.            composition 
ConA              concanavalin A
conc.             concentrate 
concd.            concentrated
concg.            concentrating 
concn.            concentration
cond.             conductivity 
const.            constant
contg.            containing 
cor.              corrected
CP                chemically pure 
CPA               coherent potential approximation 
crit.             critical
cryst.            crystalline 
crystd            crystallised
crystg            crystallising
crystn            crystallisation
crystd.           crystallized
crystg.           crystallizing 
crystn.           crystallization 
CTP               cytidine 5'-triphosphate 
cwt               hundred weight (unit) 
D                 debye unit
d.                density 
d.c.              direct current 
DEAE-cellulose    diethylaminoethyl cellulose 
decomp.           decompose
decompd.          decomposed 
decompg.          decomposing
decompn.          decomposition 
degrdn.           degradation
deriv.            derivative 
det.              determine
detd.             determined 
detg.             determining
detn.             determination 
diam.             diameter
dil.              dilute 
dild.             diluted
dilg.             diluting 
diln.             dilution 
DIM               diatomics-in-molecules 
dissoc.           dissociate
dissocd.          dissociated 
dissocg.          dissociating
dissocn.          dissociation 
distd.            distilled
distg.            distilling 
distn.            distillation 
DMF               dimethylformamide 
DMSO              dimethyl sulfoxide 
DNA               deoxyribonucleic acid 
DNase             deoxyribonuclease 
d.p.              degree of polymerization 
dpm               disintegrations per minute (unit) 
DTA               differential thermal analysis 
ECG               electrocardiogram 
ED                effective dose 
EDTA              ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid 
EEG               electroencephalogram 
EHMO              extended Hueckel molecular orbital 
elec.             electric(al)(ly) 
ELISA             enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay 
emf.              electromotive force 
emu               electromagnetic unit 
equil.            equilibrium 
equiv             equivalent (unit) 
equiv.            equivalent
esp.              especially 
ESR               electron spin resonance, electron paramagnetic resonance
est.              estimate 
estd.             estimated
estg.             estimating 
estn.             estimation 
esu               electrostatic unit
Et                ethyl 
eV                electron volt (unit) 
evap.             evaporate
evapd.            evaporated 
evapg.            evaporating
evapn.            evaporation 
examd.            examined
examg.            examining 
examn.            examination
expt.             experiment 
exptl.            experimental(ly)
ext.              extract 
extd.             extracted
extg.             extracting 
extn.             extraction
F                 farad 
F                degree Fahrenheit (unit) 
FAD               flavin adenine dinucleotide 
fcc.              face centered cubic 
fermn.            fermentation 
FMN               flavin mononucleotide 
f.p.              freezing point 
FSGO              floating spherical Gaussian orbital 
FSH               follicle-stimulating hormone 
ft                foot (unit) 
ft-lb             foot-pound (unit) 
g                 gram (unit) 
g                 gravitational constant 
G                 gauss (unit)
gal               gallon (unit) 
GDP               guanosine 5'-diphosphate 
GeV               billion electron volts (unit) 
GMP               guanosine 5'-monophosphate 
GTO               Gaussian-type orbital 
GTP               guanosine 5'-triphosphate 
Gy                gray (absorbed radiation dose) (unit) 
h                 hour (unit)
H                 henry (unit) 
ha                hectare (unit) 
HAM               hydrogenic atoms in molecules 
Hb                hemoglobin 
hcp               hexagonal close-packed 
HMO               Hueckel molecular orbital 
HOMO              highest occupied molecular orbital 
Hz                hertz (cycles/sec) (unit) 
ICSH              interstitial cell-stimulating hormone 
ID                inhibitory dose 
IDP               inosine 5'-diphosphate 
IEHMO             iterative extended Hueckel molecular orbital 
IEPA              independent electron pair approximation 
Ig                immunoglobulin 
i.m.              intramuscular(ly) 
IMP               inosine 5'-monophosphate 
in.               inch (unit) 
INDO              intermediate neglect of differential overlap 
i.p.              intraperitoneal(ly) 
IR                infrared
irradn.           irradiation 
ITP               inosine 5'-triphosphate 
IU                international unit 
i.v.              intravenous(ly) 
J                 joule (unit)
K                 kelvin (unit) 
L                 liter (unit)
lab.              laboratory 
lb                pound (unit) 
LCAO              linear combination of atomic orbitals 
LCFC              linear combination of fragment configuration 
LD                lethal dose 
LEED              low energy electron diffraction 
LH                luteinizing hormone
liq.              liquid 
lm                lumen (unit) 
LUMO              lowest unoccupied molecular orbital 
lx                lux (unit)
m                 meter (unit) 
m                 molal (unit)
M                 molar (unit) 
m.                melts at, melting at 
manuf.            manufacture
manufd.           manufactured 
manufg.           manufacturing 
math.             mathematical(ly)
max.              maximum 
MC-SCF            multiconfigurational self-consistent field 
Me                methyl (not metal) 
mech.             mechanical(ly) (not mechanism) 
metab.            metabolism 
MHD               magnetohydrodynamics 
mi                mile (unit) 
MIM               molecules-in-molecules 
min               minute (unit)
min.              minimum(s) 
misc.             miscellaneous
mixt.             mixture 
MNDO              modified neglect of diatomic overlap 
mo                month (unit) 
MO                molecular orbital 
mol               mole (unit) 
mol.              molecule, molecular 
m.p.              melting point 
mph               miles per hour (unit) 
mRNA              messenger RNA 
MSH               melanocyte-stimulating hormone 
Mx                maxwell (unit) 
NAD               nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide 
NADP              nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate 
NDDO              neglect of diatomic differential overlap 
neg.              negative(ly) 
NMN               nicotinamide mononucleotide 
NMR               nuclear magnetic resonance 
NNDO              neglect of nonbonded differential overlap 
no.               number 
NQR               nuclear quadruple resonance 
obsd.             observed
Oe                oersted (unit) 
O                 ohm (unit) 
ORD               optical rotatory dispersion 
org.              organic
oxidn.            oxidation 
oz                ounce
P                 poise (unit) 
Pa                pascal (unit) 
p.d.              potential difference
Ph                phenyl 
phys.             physical(ly) 
PMO               perturbational molecular orbital 
PNDO              partial neglect of differential overlap 
polymd            polymerised
polymg            polymerising
polymn            polymerisation
polymd.           polymerized
polymg.           polymerizing 
polymn.           polymerization
pos.              positive(ly) 
powd.             powdered 
ppb               parts per billion (unit) 
ppm               parts per million (unit) 
PPP               Pariser-Parr-Pople 
ppt.              precipitate
pptd.             precipitated 
pptg.             precipitating
pptn.             precipitation 
Pr                propyl (normal)
prep.             prepare 
prepd.            prepared
prepg.            preparing 
prepn.            preparation
prodn.            production 
psi               pounds per square inch (unit) 
psia              pounds per square inch absolute (unit) 
psig              pounds per square inch gage (unit) 
pt                pint (unit)
purifn.           purification 
qt                quart (unit) 
qual.             qualitative(ly) 
quant.            quantitative(ly) 
R                 roentgen (unit)
redn.             reduction 
ref.              reference 
rem               roentgen equivalent man (unit) 
rep               roentgen equivalent physical (unit) 
reprodn.          reproduction
resoln.           resolution 
resp.             respective(ly) 
RHEED             reflection high energy electron diffraction 
RHF               restricted Hartree-Fock 
RNA               ribonucleic acid 
RNase             ribonuclease 
RPA               random phase approximation 
rRNA              ribosomal RNA 
rpm               revolutions per minute (unit) 
RQ                respiratory quotient 
s                 second (unit) 
S                 siemens (unit) 
sapon.            saponification
sapond.           saponified 
sapong.           saponifying
sat.              saturate 
satd.             saturated
satg.             saturating 
satn.             saturation
s.c.              subcutaneous(ly) 
SCE               saturated calomel electrode 
SCF               self-consistent field 
SEM               scanning electron microscopy 
sep.              separate(ly)
sepd.             separated 
sepg.             separating
sepn.             separation 
sol.              soluble
soln.             solution 
soly.             solubility
sp. gr.           specific gravity 
sp. vol.          specific volume 
sp. wt.           specific weight 
sr                steradian (unit) 
St                stokes (unit)
std.              standard 
STO               Slater-type orbital 
sym.              symmetric(al)(ly) 
T                 tesla (unit) 
tbs               tablespoon (unit) 
TEAE-cellulose    triethylaminoethyl cellulose 
tech.             technical(ly)
temp.             temperature 
theor.            theoretical(ly) 
thermodn.         thermodynamic(s) 
THF               tetrahydrofuran
titrn.            titration 
TSH               thyroid-stimulating hormone 
tsp               teaspoon (unit) 
UDP               uridine 5'-diphosphate 
UHF               unrestricted Hartree-Fock 
UMP               uridine 5'-monophosphate 
UPS               UV photoelectron spectroscopy 
USP               United States Pharmacopeia 
UTP               uridine 5'-triphosphate 
UV                ultraviolet
V                 volt (unit) 
vol.              volume
W                 watt (unit) 
Wb                weber (unit)
wk                week (unit) 
wt.               weight 
XPS               x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy 
yd                yard (unit)
yr                year (unit) 
ZDO               zero differential overlap

Characters and Symbols in Computer-Readable Files

In computer-readable files all characters of the Roman alphabet and numbers are represented in the same way as in CAS publications. However, no distinctions are made for italic, boldface, or small capital letters. Also, superscripts and subscripts appear on the line.

Special conventions are used to represent some characters and symbols in computer-readable files. These conventions are shown in the following lists. Some of these characters and symbols can be searched in computer-readable files. For search terms, representations without the periods are used.

Conventions for Representing Greek Letters in Computer-Readable Files

 

Symbol

CAS Representation

Description

A

.ALPHA.

Alpha

B

.BETA.

Beta

Γ

.GAMMA.

Gamma

Δ

.DELTA.

Delta

E

.EPSILON.

Epsilon

Z

.ZETA.

Zeta

H

.ETA.

Eta

Θ

.THETA.

Theta

I

.IOTA.

Iota

K

.KAPPA.

Kappa

Λ

.LAMBDA.

Lambda

M

.MU.

Mu

N

.NU.

Nu

Ξ

.XI.

Xi

Ο

.OMICRON.

Omicron

Π

.PI.

Pi

P

.RHO.

Rho

Σ

.SIGMA.

Sigma

T

.TAU.

Tau

Y

.UPSILON.

Upsilon

Φ

.PHI.

Phi

X

.CHI.

Chi

Ψ

.PSI.

Psi

Ω

.OMEGA.

Omega

α

.alpha.

Alpha

β

.beta.

Beta

γ

.gamma.

Gamma

δ

.delta.

Delta

.vdelta.

Delta (variant)

ε

.epsilon.

Epsilon

ϵ

.vepsilon.

Epsilon (variant)

ζ

.zeta.

Zeta

η

.eta.

Eta

θ

.theta.

Theta

ϑ

.vtheta.

Theta (variant)

ι

.iota.

Iota

κ

.kappa.

Kappa

𝛞

.vkapa.

Kappa (variant)

λ

.lambda.

Lambda

μ

.mu.

Mu

ν

.nu.

Nu

ξ

.xi.

Xi

ο

.omicron.

Omicron

π

.pi.

Pi

ϖ

.vpi.

Pi (variant)

ρ

.rho.

Rho

σ

.sigma.

Sigma

ς

.vsigma.

Sigma (variant)

τ

.tau.

Tau

υ

.upsilon.

Upsilon

ϕ

.phi.

Phi

φ

.vphi.

Phi (variant)

χ

.chi.

Chi

ψ

.psi.

Psi

ω

.omega.

Omega

 

Conventions for Representing Symbols in Computer-Readable Files

 

Symbol

CAS Representation

Description

Ð

.angle.

Angle

Å

.ANG.

Angstrom Unit

.apprch.

Approaches

.apprxeq.

Approximately Equal

~

.apprx.

Approximates (similar)

§

.bdintg.

Bounded Integral

.box.

Box

.bul.

Bullet (12 pt. center dot)

¢

.cents.

Cent

×

.cntdot.

Center Dot

Ì

.cntnd.

Contained in

É

.cntns.

Contains

©

.copyrgt.

Copyright

Ä

.crosprd.

Cross Product

.dag.

Dagger

-

-

Dash/Minus

°

.degree.

Degree

Ñ

.del.

Del (Nabla)

¸

.div.

Division

.dnreslt.

Does Not Result in

.dblarw.

Double Arrow

.dbldag.

Double Dagger

.dblharw.

Double Half Arrows

.++.

Double Plus

.dblvert.

Double Vertical

¯

.dwnarw.

Down Arrow

.fwdarw.

Forward Arrow

.fwdcarw.

Forward Curved Arrow

.gtoreq.

Greater Than or Equal

.gtorsim.

Greater Than or Similar

.ident.

Identity

.infin.

Infinity

.intg.

Integral

Ç

.intrsec.

Intersection

.ltbbrac.

Left Broken Bracket

£

.ltoreq.

Less Than or Equal

.ltorsim.

Less Than or Similar

.lbdabar.

Lambda Bar

Î

.member.

Member of

.-+.

Minus-Plus

.mchgt.

Much Greater Than

.mchlt.

Much Less Than

Ï

.notmbr.

Not a Member of

.noteq.

Not Equal

.sun.

Of Sun

.ovrhdot.

Overhead Dot

.ovrhdbr.

Overhead Double Bar

.permill.

Per Mill

^

.perp.

Perpendicular

h

.plcnst.

Planck’s Constant

±

.+-.

Plus-Minus

£

.pnd.

Pound Sterling

¢

Prime/apostrophe

Õ

.product.

Product

Ò

.RTM.

Registered Trade Mark

.rarw.

Reverse Arrow

.rcarw.

Reverse Curved Arrow

.rscharw.

Reverse Surface Chemistry Arrow

.rtbbrac.

Right Broken Bracket

A

.SCRIPTA.

Script A

.SCRIPTB.

Script B

C

.SCRIPTC.

Script C

D

.SCRIPTD.

Script D

E

.SCRIPTE.

Script E

.SCRIPTF.

Script F

G

.SCRIPTG.

Script G

.SCRIPTH.

Script H

.SCRIPTL.

Script L

P

.SCRIPTP.

Script P

.SCRIPTR.

Script R

S

.SCRIPTS.

Script S

.simeq.

Similar or Equal

.sqroot.

Square Root

.sum.

Sum

.scharw.

Surface Chemistry Arrow

Å

.sym.

Symmetry

«

.tautm.

Tautomer

´

.times.

Times

.tplbond.

Triple Bond

È

.union.

Union

.uparw.

Up Arrow

µ

.varies.

Varies

®

.vector.

Vector

¯

.hivin.

Vinculum (high)

_

.lovin.

Vinculum (low)

¥

.yen.

Yen

NOTE: Symbols which modify characters (e.g., the vinculum) precede the character (i.e., A becomes .hivin.A).

 

 

 

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