CAS Standard Abbreviations & Acronyms

Introduction

In CAS databases, certain abbreviations and acronyms are automatically generated for terms in the abstract text, the keyword phrases, and the text modifying phrases for index entries. Most of these abbreviations have been used prior to 1982. Users  need to know these standard abbreviations and acronyms in order to be able to use them in search profiles and identify them in text.

In this document, automatically generated abbreviations and acronyms in CAS publications and services are arranged in two lists. To guide users to abbreviations they need to include in their search profiles, Listing A is arranged in the alphabetical order of the full terms which are abbreviated. Do not use periods when searching CAS abbreviations or acronyms online. To provide explanation of abbreviations encountered in text, Listing B is arranged in the alphabetical order of abbreviations and acronyms.

Examples and Lists included on this web page:

In addition to the terms specifically listed as standard abbreviations and acronyms, abbreviations are automatically generated for the following types of words:

  1. Words formed by adding prefixes to terms normally abbreviated may also be abbreviated, e.g., "microchem." for "microchemical." In Listing A, words indicated by # on the left are those which, if prefixed, are generally abbreviated. (See, Abbreviations for some common prefixed terms)
  2. Words ending in "-ology" or "-ologic(al)(ly)" are abbreviated "-ol.," e.g., "geol." for "geology." (See examples)
  3. Words ending in "-ography" or "-ographic(al)(ly)" are abbreviated "-og.," E.g., "chromatog." For "chromatographic." (See examples)
  4. Plurals of noun abbreviations are formed by adding "s" to the singular abbreviation, e.g., "derivs." For "derivatives." Two exceptions are cases when a single abbreviation is designated to show both the singular and plural forms (e.g., "equil." For "equilibrium(s)" and words marked on the list with an asterisk (*) whose plurals are not abbreviated.
  5. Verb forms that require "s" are abbreviated by adding "s" to the listed abbreviation, e.g., "Compd. decomps. on heating" for "Compound decomposes on heating."

Standard abbreviations and acronyms are not automatically generated for terms appearing in titles. However, in titles abbreviations used by the author may appear.

In addition to the standard, automatically generated abbreviations and acronyms, other acronyms, atomic symbols (e.g., Cl, Sb), and molecular formulas (e.g., NaCl) may also be used in CAS publications and services.

Examples of some terms ending in "-ology" that are abbreviated "-ol."

    anesthesiology                       limnology 
bacteriology meteorology
biology methodology
cardiology morphology
chronology nephrology
cytology neurology
dermatology oncology
ecology ophthalmology
endocrinology pathology
enzymology petrology
epidemiology pharmacology
etiology physiology
gastroenterology radiology
geology rheology
gynecology sedimentology
hematology serology
histology technology
homology teratology
hydrology topology
immunology virology

Abbreviation "-ol." is also applied to the adjective form, e.g., "pharmacologic(al)," the adverb form, e.g., "pharmacologically" and prefixed forms, e.g., "neuropharmacology" of terms ending in "-ology."

 

Examples of some terms ending in "-ography" that are abbreviated "-og.":

angiography            metallography 
bibliography micrography
biography oceanography
cardiography petrography
cholecystography photography
chromatography planography
crystallography polarography
derivatography radiography
electroencephalography reprography
electrography spectrography
fractography thermography
fragmentography tomography
geography topography
holography xerography
lithography

Abbreviation "og." is also applied to the adjective form, e.g., "geographic(al)," the adverb form, e.g., "geographically," and prefixed forms, e.g., "paleogeography" of terms ending in "-ography."

 

Abbreviations for some common prefixed terms *

anal. (analysis)
  electroanal.
  immunoanal.
  microanal.
  radioanal.
  thermoanal.

at. [atomic(al)(ly)]
  diat.
  interat.
  monoat.
  polyat.
  tetraat.
  triat.

chem. [chemical(ly), chemistry]
  agrochem.
  biochem.
  cytochem.
  electrochem.
  geochem.
  histochem.
  immunochem.
  neurochem.
  petrochem.
  photochem.
  physicochem.
  radiochem.
  spectrochem.
  thermochem.

clin. [clinic(al)(ly)]
  preclin.
  Subclin.

cond. (conductivity)
  electrocond.
  magnetocond.
  photocond.
  semicond.
  supercond.
  thermocond.

crystn. (crystallization)
  cocrystn.
  electrocrystn.

recrystn. decompn. (decomposition)
  photodecompn.

degrdn. (degradation)
  biodegrdn.
  photodegrdn.
  thermodegrdn.

detn. (determination)
  immunodetn.
  microdetn.

dissocn. (dissociation)
  photodissocn.
  predissocn.

elec. [electric(al)(ly)]
  acoustoelec.
  bioelec.
  dielec.
  ferroelec.
  isoelec.
  paraelec.
  photodielec.
  photoelec.
  piezoelec.
  pyroelec.
  thermoelec.

equil. (equilibrium)
  disequil.
  nonequil.
  preequil.

extn. (extraction)
  coextn.
  electroextn.
  reextn.

Hb (hemoglobin)
  cargonylHb
  carboxyHb
  deoxyHb
  ferriHb
  metHb
  oxyHb
  sulfHb

irradn. (irradiation)
  postirradn.
  preirradn.

mech. [mechanic(al)(ly)]
  biomech.
  electromech.
  micromech.
  photomech.
  physicomech.
  thermomech.

mol. (molecule, molecular)
  bimol.
  intermol.
  intramol.
  macromol.
  monomol.
  supermol.
  supramol.
  turbomol.
  unimol.

org. [organic(ally)]
  bioinorg.
  bioorg.
  chloroorg.
  electroorg.
  fluoroorg.
  inorg.
  metalloorg.
  microorg.

oxidn. (oxidation)
  autoxidn.
  biooxidn.
  cooxidn.
  deoxidn.
  electrooxidn.
  epoxidn.
  peroxidn.
  photooxidn.
  reoxidn.
  thermooxidn.

pptn. (precipitation)
  copptn.
  immunopptn.

soly. (solubility)
  hydrosoly.
  insoly.
  liposoly.

sym. [symmetry, symmetric(al)(ly)]
  asym.
  unsym.

* See "Standard Abbreviations and Acronyms," Listing A for a complete list of terms which, if prefixed, are generally abbreviated.

Automatic retrieval of CAS abbreviations on STN

In CAS bibliographic files on STN, e.g., CAplus or CA, you can retrieve CAS abbreviations automatically. Simply enter the commands SET ABB ON and SET PLURAL ON at an arrow prompt.

When you SET ABB ON, abbreviations are generated for all terms searched in the Basic Index, or in the specific fields that comprise the Basic Index. A separate posting line appears if any occurrences of an abbreviation are found. When you SET PLURAL ON, you also automatically retrieve plural abbreviations.

The default for SET ABB is OFF. To include abbreviations for all SEARCH and QUERY commands in your session, enter SET ABB ON at an arrow prompt. To retain the ON setting beyond the current session, enter SET ABB ON PERM.

Not all CAS standard abbreviations are available with SET ABB. CAS abbreviations for most units and multiword terms have been removed to keep false drops and irrelevant retrievals to a minimum. To see a list of terms for which abbreviations will be added, enter HELP ABB at an arrow prompt (=>) in the file. For more information on this SET command, enter HELP SET ABB at an arrow prompt.

 

SET ABB ON to retrieve CAS abbreviations

=> SET ABB ON PERM SET COMMAND COMPLETED
=> SET PLURAL ON PERM SET COMMAND COMPLETED
=> S PRECIPITAT? 35280 PRECIPITAT?
75559 PPT
30694 PPTS
98131 PPT
(PPT OR PPTS) 59648 PPTD
2 PPTDS
59648 PPTD
(PPTD OR PPTDS)
13101 PPTG
131576 PPTN 1980 PPTNS
132847 PPTN
(PPTN OR PPTNS)
L1 258048 PRECIPITAT? PRECIPITAT? OR PPT OR PPTD OR PPTG OR PPTN)

Online help message

=> FILE CAPLUS
=> HELP ABB
When you SET ABBREVIATONS ON, abbreviations are automatically
generated for the terms in the following list when the term or a
truncated stem that would encompass a listed term is searched 
in the Basic Index, or in the specific fields that comprise
the Basic Index. 
 Examples:     
    => SET ABB ON
    SET COMMAND COMPLETED 
    => S CONCENTRAT?
       149313 CONCENTRAT?         
       50824 CONC
       115142 CONCD
       9541 CONCG
      1035004 CONCN     
      L2       1221846 CONCENTRAT? 
      (CONCENTRAT? OR CONC OR CONCD OR CONCG OR CONCN)  
For more information on this SET option, enter HELP SET ABB 
at an arrow prompt (=>). For a list of fields in the Basic Index,
enter HELP SFIELDS at an arrow prompt in this file.

ABSOLUTE            
DILUTED              
PRECIPITATE  
ABSTRACT DILUTING PRECIPITATED
ADDITION DILUTION PRECIPITATING
ADDITIONAL DIMETHYLFORMAMIDE PRECIPITATION
ADDITIONALLY DISSOCIATE PREPARATION
ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN
DISSOCIATED PREPARE
ALCOHOL DISSOCIATING PREPARED
ALCOHOLIC DISSOCIATION PREPARING
ALIPHATIC DISTILLATION PRODUCTION
ALKALINE DISTILLED PROPYL
ALKALINITY DISTILLING PURIFICATION DECOMPOSING ORGANIC FLAVIN ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE
DECOMPOSITION OXIDATION FLAVIN MONONUCLEOTIDE
DEGRADATION PHENYL INHIBITORY
DOSE
DEOXYRIBONUCLEASE
PHYSICAL LETHAL DOSE
DERIVATIVE PHYSICALLY LUTEINIZING HORMONE
DETERMINATION POLYMERIZATION NICOTINAMIDE MONONUCLEOTIDE
DETERMINE POLYMERIZED NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE
DETERMINED POLYMERIZING NUCLEAR QUADRUPOLE RESONANCE
DETERMINING POSITIVE RIBONUCLEIC ACID
DIAMETER POSITIVELY SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY
DILUTE POWDERED UV PHOTOELECTRON

Listing A

absolute                                                 abs.
abstract                                               abstr.  
#addition                                               addn.
additional(ly)                                         addnl.
adenosine 5'-diphosphate                                  ADP   
adenosine 5'-monophosphate                                AMP   
adenosine triphosphatase                               ATPase   
adenosine 5'-triphosphate                                 ATP   
adrenocorticotropin                                      ACTH  
#alcohol(ic)                                             alc.
#aliphatic                                             aliph.
alkaline                                                 alk.
alkalinity*                                             alky.
all valence electron                                      AVE
alternating current                                      a.c.
amount                                                   amt.
ampere (unit)                                              A
#analysis*                                              anal.  
#analytical(y)                                          anal.
angstrom unit                                             **   
anhydrous                                              anhyd.
apparatus                                                app.
approximate(ly)                                       approx.
approximation                                        approxn.  
#aqueous                                                  aq.  
#aromatic                                               arom.
associate                                              assoc.
associated                                            assocd.
associating                                           assocg.  
#association                                          assocn.
asymmetric(al)(ly)                                      asym.
atmosphere (unit)                                        atm.
atmospheric                                              atm.  
#atomic                                                   at.
atomic mass unit                                         amu   
atomic orbital                                            AO   
augmented plane wave                                     APW   
average                                                  av.
Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer                                BCS   
barrel (unit)                                            bbl   
becquerel (unit)                                          Bq   
billion electron volts (unit)                            GeV   
biochemical oxygen demand                                BOD   
body centered cubic                                     bcc.
Bohr magneton (unit)                                    mB**   
boiling point                                           b.p.
British thermal unit                                     Btu   
bushel (unit)                                             bu   
butyl (normal)                                            Bu  
#calculate                                              calc.  
#calculated                                            calcd.  
#calculating                                           calcg.  
#calcul                                                calcn.
calorie (unit)                                            cal   
carboxymethyl cellulose                         CM- cellulose  
#chemical(ly)                                           chem.
chemical oxygen demand                                    COD   
chemically pure                                            CP  
#chemistry                                               chem.
circular dichroism                                         CD  
#clinical(ly)                                            clin.
coefficient                                             coeff.  
#coenzyme A                                                CoA   
coherent potential approximation                           CPA   
commercial(ly)                                            com.
complete neglect of differential overlap                  CNDO   
composition                                             compn.
compound                                                compd.
concanavalin A                                            ConA  
#concentrate                                             conc.  
#concentrated                                           concd.  
#concentrating                                          concg.  
#concentration                                          concn.  
#conductivity*                                           cond.
configuration interaction                                  CI   
constant                                                const.
containing                                              contg.
corrected                                                 cor.
coulomb (unit)                                               C   
coupled electron pair approximation                       CEPA  
#critical                                                 crit.  
#crystalline                                             cryst.
crystallisation                                          crystn  
crystallised                                             crystd  
crystallising                                            crystg 
#crystallization                                        crystn.  
#crystallized                                           crystd.  
#crystallizing                                          crystg.
cubic feet per minute (unit)                                cfm   
curie (unit)                                                 Ci   
current density                                            c.d.
cyclic AMP                                                 cAMP   
cyclic GMP                                                 cGMP   
cytidine 5'-diphosphate                                     CDP   
cytidine 5'-monophosphate                                   CMP   
cytidine 5'-triphosphate                                    CTP   
debye unit                                                    D   
decompose                                               decomp.
decomposed                                             decompd.
decomposing                                            decompg.  
#decomposition                                         decompn.  
#degradation                                            degrdn.
degree Celsius centigrade (unit)                           C**   
degree Fahrenheit (unit)                                   F**   
degree Kelvin                                                K   
degree of polymerization                                  d.p.
density                                                     d.
deoxyribonuclease                                        DNase   
deoxyribonucleic acid                                      DNA   
derivative                                              deriv.  
#determination                                           detn.
determine                                                 det.  
#determined                                              detd.
determining                                              detg.
diameter                                                 diam.
diatomics-in-molecules                                     DIM   
diethylaminoethyl cellulose                     DEAE-cellulose   
ifferential thermal analysis                               DTA   
dilute                                                     dil.
diluted                                                   dild.
diluting                                                  dilg.
dilution                                                  diln.
dimethylformamide                                           DMF   
diphosphopyridine nucleotide                                NAD   
direct current                                             d.c.
disintegrations per minute (unit)                           dpm   
dissociate                                              dissoc.
dissociated                                            dissocd.
dissociating                                           dissocg.  
#dissociation                                          dissocn.  
#distillation                                            distn.  
#distilled                                               distd.  
#distilling                                              distg.
effective dose                                              ED  
#electric(al)(ly)                                        elec.
electrocardiogram                                          ECG   
electroencephalogram                                       EEG   
electromagnetic unit                                       emu   
electromotive force                                       emf.
electron paramagnetic resonance                            ESR   
electron spin resonance                                    ESR   
electron volt (unit)                                        eV   
electrostatic unit                                         esu   
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay                        ELISA  
#equilibrium(s)                                          equil.
equivalent (unit)                                        equiv.  
#equivalent                                              equiv.
especially                                                 esp.
estimate                                                   est.
estimated                                                 estd.
estimating                                                estg.
estimation                                                estn.
ethyl                                                        Et   
ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid                            EDTA   
evaporate                                                 evap.
evaporated                                               evapd.
evaporating                                              evapg.
evaporation                                              evapn.  
#examination                                             examn.  
#examined                                                examd.  
#examining                                               examg.
experiment                                                expt.
experimental(ly)                                         exptl.
extended Hueckel molecular orbital                         EHMO   
extract                                                    ext.
extracted                                                 extd.
extracting                                                extg.  
#extraction                                               extn.
face centered cubic                                        fcc.
farad (unit)                                                 F   
fermentation                                             fermn.
flavin adenine dinucleotide                                 FAD   
flavin mononucleotide                                       FMN   
floating spherical Gaussian orbital                        FSGO   
foot (unit)                                                  ft   
foot-pound (unit)                                         ft-lb   
follicle-stimulating hormone                                FSH   
freezing point                                              f.p.
gallon (unit)                                                gal   
gauss (unit)                                                   G   
Gaussian-type orbital                                        GTO   
gram (unit)                                                    g   
gravitational constant                                         g   
gray (absorbed radiation dose) (unit)                         Gy   
5'-monophosphate                                             GMP   
guanosine 5'-triphosphate                                    GTP   
hectare                                                       ha   
henry                                                          H  
#hemoglobin                                                   Hb   
hertz (cycles/sec) (unit)                                     Hz   
hexagonal close-packed                                      hcp.
highest occupied molecular orbital                          HOMO   
hour (unit)                                                    h   
Hueckel molecular orbital                                    HMO   
hundredweight (unit)                                         cwt   
hydrogenic atoms in molecules                                HAM   
immunoglobulin                                                Ig   
inch (unit)                                                   in.
independent electron pair approximation                     IEPA   
infrared                                                      IR   
inhibitory dose                                               ID   
inosine 5'-diphosphate                                       IDP   
inosine 5'-monophosphate                                     IMP   
inosine 5'-triphosphate                                      ITP   
intermediate neglect of differential overlap                INDO   
international unit                                            IU   
interstitial cell-stimulating hormone                       ICSH   
intramuscular(ly)                                           i.m.
intraperitoneal(ly)                                         i.p.
intravenous(ly)                                             i.v.  
#irradiation                                             irradn.
iterative extended Hueckel molecular orbital               IEHMO   
joule (unit)                                                   J   
kelvin (unit)                                                  K   
laboratory                                                  lab.
lethal dose                                                   LD   
linear combination of atomic orbitals                       LCAO   
linear combination of fragment configuration                LCFC   
liquid                                                      liq.
liter (unit)                                                   L   
low energy electron diffraction                             LEED   
lowest unoccupied molecular orbital                         LUMO   
lumen (unit)                                                  lm   
luteinizing hormone                                           LH   
lux (unit)                                                    lx   
magnetohydrodynamics                                         MHD   
manufacture                                                manuf.
manufactured                                              manufd.
manufacturing                                             manufg.
mathematical(ly)                                            math.
maximum(s)                                                   max.
maxwell (unit)                                                 Mx  
#mechanical(ly)                                             mech.
melanocyte-stimulating hormone                                MSH   
melting at                                                     m.
melting point                                                m.p.
melts at                                                       m.
messenger RNA                                                mRNA   
metabolism                                                  metab.
meter (unit)                                                    m   
methyl                                                         Me   
mile (unit)                                                    mi   
miles per hour (unit)                                         mph   
minimum(s)                                                    min.
minute (unit)                                                 min   
miscellaneous                                                misc.  
#mixture                                                     mixt.
modified neglect of diatomic overlap                          MNDO   
molal (unit)                                                     m   
molar (unit)                                                     M   
mole (unit)                                                    mol  
#molecular                                                     mol.
molecular orbital                                               MO  
#molecule                                                      mol.
molecules-in-molecules                                          MIM   
month (unit)                                                    mo.
multiconfigurational self-consistent field                   MC-SCF  
#negative(ly)                                                  neg.
neglect of diatomic differential overlap                      NDDO   
neglect of nonbonded differential overlap                     NNDO   
nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide                              NAD   
nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate                   NADP   
nicotinamide mononucleotide                                    NMN
nuclear magnetic resonance                                     NMR   
nuclear quadrupole resonance                                   NQR   
number                                                         no.
observed                                                      obsd.
oersted (unit)                                                  Oe   
ohm (unit)                                                     O **   
optical rotatory dispersion                                    ORD  
#organic                                                      org.
ounce (unit)                                                    oz  
#oxidation                                                  oxidn.
Pariser-Parr-Pople                                             PPP   
partial neglect of differential overlap                       PNDO   
parts per billion (unit)                                       ppb   
parts per million (unit)                                       ppm   
pascal (unit)                                                   Pa   
perturbational molecular orbital                               PMO   
phenyl                                                          Ph  
#physical(ly)                                                 phys.
pint (unit)                                                     pt   
poise (unit)                                                     P   
polymerisation                                              polymn  
polymerised                                                 polymd  
polymerising                                                polymg 
#polymerization                                             polymn.  
#polymerized                                                polymd.  
#polymerizing                                               polymg.  
#positive(ly)                                                  pos.
potential difference                                           p.d.
pound (unit)                                                    lb   
pounds per square inch (unit)                                  psi   
pounds per square inch absolute (unit)                        psia   
pounds per square inch gage (unit)                            psig  
#powdered                                                     powd.  
#precipitate                                                   ppt.  
#precipitated                                                 pptd.  
#precipitating                                                pptg.  
#precipitation                                                pptn.
preparation                                                  prepn.
prepare                                                       prep.
prepared                                                     prepd.
preparing                                                    prepg.  
#production                                                  prodn.
propyl (normal)                                                  Pr  
#purification                                               purifn.
qualitative(ly)                                               qual.  
#quantitative(ly)                                            quant.
quart (unit)                                                    qt   
radioimmunoassay                                               RIA   
random phase approximation                                     RPA  
#reduction                                                    redn.
reference                                                      ref.
reflection high energy electron diffraction                   RHEED   
reproduction                                               reprodn.
resolution                                                  resoln.  
#respective(ly)                                               resp.
respiratory quotient                                            RQ   
restricted Hartree-Fock                                        RHF   
revolutions per minute (unit)                                  rpm   
ribonuclease                                                 RNase   
ribonucleic acid                                               RNA   
ribosomal RNA                                                 rRNA   
roentgen (unit)                                                  R   
roentgen equivalent man (unit)                                 rem   
roentgen equivalent physical (unit)                            rep   
saponification                                              sapon.
saponified                                                 sapond.
saponifying                                                sapong.
saturate                                                      sat.  
#saturated                                                   satd.
saturated calomel electrode                                   SCE   
saturating                                                   satg.  
#saturation                                                  satn.
scanning electron microscopy                                  SEM   
second (unit)                                                   s   
self-consistent field                                         SCF   
separate(ly)                                                  sep.
separated                                                    sepd.
separating                                                   sepg.
separation                                                   sepn.
siemens (unit)                                                  S   
Slater-type orbital                                           STO  
#solubility*                                                 soly.  
#soluble                                                      sol.  
#solution                                                    soln.
specific gravity                                           sp. gr.
specific volume                                           sp. vol.
specific weight                                            sp. wt.
standard                                                      std.
steradian (unit)                                               sr   
stokes (unit)                                                  St   
subcutaneous(ly)                                              s.c.  
#symmetric(al)(ly)                                            sym.
tablespoon (unit)                                             tbs   
teaspoon (unit)                                               tsp  
#technical(ly)                                               tech.
temperature                                                  temp.
tesla (unit)                                                    T   
tetrahydrofuran                                               THF   
theoretical(ly)                                             theor.
thermodynamic(s)                                         thermodn.
thyroid-stimulating hormone                                   TSH   
titration                                                   titrn.
triethylaminoethyl cellulose                       TEAE-cellulose   
triphosphopyridine nucleotide                                NADP   
ultraviolet                                                    UV   
United States Pharmacopeia                                    USP   
unrestricted Hartree-Fock                                     UHF   
uridine 5'-diphosphate                                        UDP   
uridine 5'-monophosphate                                      UMP   
uridine 5'-triphosphate                                       UTS   
UV photoelectron spectroscopy                                 UPS   
volt (unit)                                                     V   
volume                                                       vol.
watt (unit)                                                     W   
weber (unit)                                                   Wb   
week (unit)                                                    wk   
weight                                                        wt.
x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy                              XPS   
yard (unit)                                                    yd   
year (unit)                                                    yr   
zero differential overlap                                     ZDO 

* Terms whose plurals are not automatically abbreviated by adding "s."

# If prefixed, these words are generally abbreviated. For examples, see the list of "Abbreviations for some common prefixed terms" which precedes Listing A.

** For representation in computer-readable files see "Listing of Characters and Symbols in Computer-Readable Files."

Listing B

A

ampere (unit)

angstrom (unit)

 

abs.

absolute

abstr.

abstract

a.c.

alternating current

ACTH

adrenocorticotropin

addn.

addition

addnl.

additional(ly)

ADP

adenosine 5'-diphosphate

alc.

alcohol(ic)

aliph.

aliphatic

alk.

alkaline

alky.

alkalinity

AMP

adenosine 5'-monophosphate

amt.

amount

amu

atomic mass unit

anal.

analysis, analytical(ly)

anhyd.

anhydrous

AO

atomic orbital

app.

apparatus

approx.

approximate(ly)

approxn.

approximation

APW

augmented plane wave

aq.

aqueous

arom.

aromatic

assoc.

associate

assocd.

associated

assocg.

associating

assocn.

association

asym.

asymmetric(al)(ly)

at.

atomic

atm

atmosphere (unit)

atm.

atmospheric

ATP

adenosine 5'-triphosphate

ATPase

adenosine triphosphatase

av.

average

AVE

all valence electron

bbl

barrel (unit)

bcc.

body centered cubic

BCS

bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer

BOD

biochemical oxygen demand

b.p.

boiling point

Bq

becquerel (unit)

Btu

British thermal unit

Bu

butyl (normal)

bu

bushel (unit)

mB

Bohr magneton (unit)

C

coulomb (unit)

C

degree Celsius (centigrade) (unit)

cal

calorie (unit)

calc.

calculate

calcd.

calculated

calcg.

calculating

calcn.

calculation

cAMP

cyclic AMP

c.d.

current density

CD

circular dichroism

CDP

cytidine 5'-diphosphate

CEPA

coupled electron pair approximation

cfm

cubic feet per minute (unit)

cGMP

cyclic GMP

chem.

chemical(ly), chemistry

CI

configuration interaction

Ci

curie (unit)

clin.

clinical(ly)

CM-cellulose

carboxymethyl cellulose

CMP

cytidine 5'-monophosphate

CNDO

complete neglect of differential overlap

CoA

coenzyme A

COD

chemical oxygen demand

coeff.

coefficient

com.

commercial(ly)

compd.

compound

compn.

composition

ConA

concanavalin A

conc.

concentrate

concd.

concentrated

concg.

concentrating

concn.

concentration

cond.

conductivity

const.

constant

contg.

containing

cor.

corrected

CP

chemically pure

CPA

coherent potential approximation

crit.

critical

cryst.

crystalline

crystd

crystallised

crystg

crystallising

crystn

crystallisation

crystd.

crystallized

crystg.

crystallizing

crystn.

crystallization

CTP

cytidine 5'-triphosphate

cwt

hundred weight (unit)

D

debye unit

d.

density

d.c.

direct current

DEAE-cellulose

diethylaminoethyl cellulose

decomp.

decompose

decompd.

decomposed

decompg.

decomposing

decompn.

decomposition

degrdn.

degradation

deriv.

derivative

det.

determine

detd.

determined

detg.

determining

detn.

determination

diam.

diameter

dil.

dilute

dild.

diluted

dilg.

diluting

diln.

dilution

DIM

diatomics-in-molecules

dissoc.

dissociate

dissocd.

dissociated

dissocg.

dissociating

dissocn.

dissociation

distd.

distilled

distg.

distilling

distn.

distillation

DMF

dimethylformamide

DMSO

dimethyl sulfoxide

DNA

deoxyribonucleic acid

DNase

deoxyribonuclease

d.p.

degree of polymerization

dpm

disintegrations per minute (unit)

DTA

differential thermal analysis

ECG

electrocardiogram

ED

effective dose

EDTA

ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid

EEG

electroencephalogram

EHMO

extended Hueckel molecular orbital

elec.

electric(al)(ly)

ELISA

enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

emf.

electromotive force

emu

electromagnetic unit

equil.

equilibrium

equiv

equivalent (unit)

equiv.

equivalent

esp.

especially

ESR

electron spin resonance, electron paramagnetic resonance

est.

estimate

estd.

estimated

estg.

estimating

estn.

estimation

esu

electrostatic unit

Et

ethyl

eV

electron volt (unit)

evap.

evaporate

evapd.

evaporated

evapg.

evaporating

evapn.

evaporation

examd.

examined

examg.

examining

examn.

examination

expt.

experiment

exptl.

experimental(ly)

ext.

extract

extd.

extracted

extg.

extracting

extn.

extraction

F

farad

F

degree Fahrenheit (unit)

FAD

flavin adenine dinucleotide

fcc.

face centered cubic

fermn.

fermentation

FMN

flavin mononucleotide

f.p.

freezing point

FSGO

floating spherical Gaussian orbital

FSH

follicle-stimulating hormone

ft

foot (unit)

ft-lb

foot-pound (unit)

g

gram (unit)

g

gravitational constant

G

gauss (unit)

gal

gallon (unit)

GDP

guanosine 5'-diphosphate

GeV

billion electron volts (unit)

GMP

guanosine 5'-monophosphate

GTO

Gaussian-type orbital

GTP

guanosine 5'-triphosphate

Gy

gray (absorbed radiation dose) (unit)

h

hour (unit)

H

henry (unit)

ha

hectare (unit)

HAM

hydrogenic atoms in molecules

Hb

hemoglobin

hcp

hexagonal close-packed

HMO

Hueckel molecular orbital

HOMO

highest occupied molecular orbital

Hz

hertz (cycles/sec) (unit)

ICSH

interstitial cell-stimulating hormone

ID

inhibitory dose

IDP

inosine 5'-diphosphate

IEHMO

iterative extended Hueckel molecular orbital

IEPA

independent electron pair approximation

Ig

immunoglobulin

i.m.

intramuscular(ly)

IMP

inosine 5'-monophosphate

in.

inch (unit)

INDO

intermediate neglect of differential overlap

i.p.

intraperitoneal(ly)

IR

infrared

irradn.

irradiation

ITP

inosine 5'-triphosphate

IU

international unit

i.v.

intravenous(ly)

J

joule (unit)

K

kelvin (unit)

L

liter (unit)

lab.

laboratory

lb

pound (unit)

LCAO

linear combination of atomic orbitals

LCFC

linear combination of fragment configuration

LD

lethal dose

LEED

low energy electron diffraction

LH

luteinizing hormone

liq.

liquid

lm

lumen (unit)

LUMO

lowest unoccupied molecular orbital

lx

lux (unit)

m

meter (unit)

m

olal (unit)

M

molar (unit)

m.

melts at, melting at

manuf.

manufacture

manufd.

manufactured

manufg.

manufacturing

math.

mathematical(ly)

max.

maximum

MC-SCF

multiconfigurational self-consistent field

Me

methyl (not metal)

mech.

mechanical(ly) (not mechanism)

metab.

metabolism

MHD

magnetohydrodynamics

mi

mile (unit)

MIM

molecules-in-molecules

min

minute (unit)

min.

minimum(s)

misc.

miscellaneous

mixt.

mixture

MNDO

modified neglect of diatomic overlap

mo

month (unit)

MO

molecular orbital

mol

mole (unit)

mol.

molecule, molecular

m.p.

melting point

mph

miles per hour (unit)

mRNA

messenger RNA

MSH

melanocyte-stimulating hormone

Mx

maxwell (unit)

NAD

nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

NADP

nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate

NDDO

neglect of diatomic differential overlap

neg.

negative(ly)

NMN

nicotinamide mononucleotide

NMR

nuclear magnetic resonance

NNDO

neglect of nonbonded differential overlap

no.

number

NQR

nuclear quadruple resonance

obsd.

observed

Oe

oersted (unit)

O

ohm (unit)

ORD

optical rotatory dispersion

org.

organic

oxidn.

oxidation

oz

ounce

P

poise (unit)

Pa

pascal (unit)

p.d.

potential difference

Ph

phenyl

phys.

physical(ly)

PMO

perturbational molecular orbital

PNDO

partial neglect of differential overlap

polymd

polymerised

polymg

polymerising

polymn

polymerisation

polymd.

polymerized

polymg.

polymerizing

polymn.

polymerization

pos.

positive(ly)

powd.

powdered

ppb

parts per billion (unit)

ppm

parts per million (unit)

PPP

Pariser-Parr-Pople

ppt.

precipitate

pptd.

precipitated

pptg.

precipitating

pptn.

precipitation

Pr

propyl (normal)

prep.

prepare

prepd.

prepared

prepg.

preparing

prepn.

preparation

prodn.

production

psi

pounds per square inch (unit)

psia

pounds per square inch absolute (unit)

psig

pounds per square inch gage (unit)

pt

pint (unit)

purifn.

purification

qt

quart (unit)

qual.

Qualitative(ly)

quant.

quantitative(ly)

R

roentgen (unit)

redn.

reduction

ref.

reference

rem

roentgen equivalent man (unit)

rep

roentgen equivalent physical (unit)

reprodn.

reproduction

resoln.

resolution

resp.

respective(ly)

RHEED

reflection high energy electron diffraction

RHF

restricted Hartree-Fock

RNA

ribonucleic acid

RNase

ribonuclease

RPA

random phase approximation

rRNA

ribosomal RNA

rpm

revolutions per minute (unit)

RQ

respiratory quotient

s

second (unit)

S

siemens (unit)

sapon.

saponification

sapond.

saponified

sapong.

saponifying

sat.

saturate

satd.

saturated

satg.

saturating

satn.

saturation

s.c.

subcutaneous(ly)

SCE

saturated calomel electrode

SCF

self-consistent field

SEM

scanning electron microscopy

sep.

separate(ly)

sepd.

separated

sepg.

separating

sepn.

separation

sol.

soluble

soln.

solution

soly.

solubility

sp.

gr. specific gravity

sp.

vol. specific volume

sp.

wt. specific weight

sr

steradian (unit)

St

stokes (unit)

std.

standard

STO

Slater-type orbital

sym.

symmetric(al)(ly)

T

tesla (unit)

tbs

tablespoon (unit)

TEAE-cellulose

triethylaminoethyl cellulose

tech.

technical(ly)

temp.

temperature

theor.

theoretical(ly)

thermodn.

thermodynamic(s)

THF

tetrahydrofuran

titrn.

titration

TSH

thyroid-stimulating hormone

tsp

teaspoon (unit)

UDP

uridine 5'-diphosphate

UHF

unrestricted Hartree-Fock

UMP

uridine 5'-monophosphate

UPS

UV photoelectron spectroscopy

USP

United States Pharmacopeia

UTP

uridine 5'-triphosphate

UV

ultraviolet

V

volt (unit)

vol.

volume

W

watt (unit)

Wb

weber (unit)

wk

week (unit)

wt.

weight

XPS

x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

yd

yard (unit)

yr

year (unit)

ZDO

zero differential overlap

 

Characters and Symbols in Computer-Readable Files

In computer-readable files all characters of the Roman alphabet and numbers are represented in the same way as in CAS publications. However, no distinctions are made for italic, boldface, or small capital letters. Also, superscripts and subscripts appear on the line.

Special conventions are used to represent some characters and symbols in computer-readable files. These conventions are shown in the following lists. Some of these characters and symbols can be searched in computer-readable files. For search terms, representations without the periods are used.

Conventions for Representing Greek Letters in Computer-Readable Files

 

Symbol

CAS Representation

Description

A

.ALPHA.

Alpha

B

.BETA.

Beta

Γ

.GAMMA.

Gamma

Δ

.DELTA.

Delta

E

.EPSILON.

Epsilon

Z

.ZETA.

Zeta

H

.ETA.

Eta

Θ

.THETA.

Theta

I

.IOTA.

Iota

K

.KAPPA.

Kappa

Λ

.LAMBDA.

Lambda

M

.MU.

Mu

N

.NU.

Nu

Ξ

.XI.

Xi

Ο

.OMICRON.

Omicron

Π

.PI.

Pi

P

.RHO.

Rho

Σ

.SIGMA.

Sigma

T

.TAU.

Tau

Y

.UPSILON.

Upsilon

Φ

.PHI.

Phi

X

.CHI.

Chi

Ψ

.PSI.

Psi

Ω

.OMEGA.

Omega

α

.alpha.

Alpha

β

.beta.

Beta

γ

.gamma.

Gamma

δ

.delta.

Delta

.vdelta.

Delta (variant)

ε

.epsilon.

Epsilon

ϵ

.vepsilon.

Epsilon (variant)

ζ

.zeta.

Zeta

η

.eta.

Eta

θ

.theta.

Theta

ϑ

.vtheta.

Theta (variant)

ι

.iota.

Iota

κ

.kappa.

Kappa

𝛞

.vkapa.

Kappa (variant)

λ

.lambda.

Lambda

μ

.mu.

Mu

ν

.nu.

Nu

ξ

.xi.

Xi

ο

.omicron.

Omicron

π

.pi.

Pi

ϖ

.vpi.

Pi (variant)

ρ

.rho.

Rho

σ

.sigma.

Sigma

ς

.vsigma.

Sigma (variant)

τ

.tau.

Tau

υ

.upsilon.

Upsilon

ϕ

.phi.

Phi

φ

.vphi.

Phi (variant)

χ

.chi.

Chi

ψ

.psi.

Psi

ω

.omega.

Omega

 

Conventions for Representing Symbols in Computer-Readable Files

 

Symbol

CAS Representation

Description

Ð

.angle.

Angle

Å

.ANG.

Angstrom Unit

.apprch.

Approaches

.apprxeq.

Approximately Equal

~

.apprx.

Approximates (similar)

§

.bdintg.

Bounded Integral

.box.

Box

.bul.

Bullet (12 pt. center dot)

¢

.cents.

Cent

×

.cntdot.

Center Dot

Ì

.cntnd.

Contained in

É

.cntns.

Contains

©

.copyrgt.

Copyright

Ä

.crosprd.

Cross Product

.dag.

Dagger

-

-

Dash/Minus

°

.degree.

Degree

Ñ

.del.

Del (Nabla)

¸

.div.

Division

.dnreslt.

Does Not Result in

.dblarw.

Double Arrow

.dbldag.

Double Dagger

.dblharw.

Double Half Arrows

.++.

Double Plus

.dblvert.

Double Vertical

¯

.dwnarw.

Down Arrow

.fwdarw.

Forward Arrow

.fwdcarw.

Forward Curved Arrow

.gtoreq.

Greater Than or Equal

.gtorsim.

Greater Than or Similar

.ident.

Identity

.infin.

Infinity

.intg.

Integral

Ç

.intrsec.

Intersection

.ltbbrac.

Left Broken Bracket

£

.ltoreq.

Less Than or Equal

.ltorsim.

Less Than or Similar

.lbdabar.

Lambda Bar

Î

.member.

Member of

.-+.

Minus-Plus

.mchgt.

Much Greater Than

.mchlt.

Much Less Than

Ï

.notmbr.

Not a Member of

.noteq.

Not Equal

.sun.

Of Sun

.ovrhdot.

Overhead Dot

.ovrhdbr.

Overhead Double Bar

.permill.

Per Mill

^

.perp.

Perpendicular

h

.plcnst.

Planck’s Constant

±

.+-.

Plus-Minus

£

.pnd.

Pound Sterling

¢

Prime/apostrophe

Õ

.product.

Product

Ò

.RTM.

Registered Trade Mark

.rarw.

Reverse Arrow

.rcarw.

Reverse Curved Arrow

.rscharw.

Reverse Surface Chemistry Arrow

.rtbbrac.

Right Broken Bracket

A

.SCRIPTA.

Script A

.SCRIPTB.

Script B

C

.SCRIPTC.

Script C

D

.SCRIPTD.

Script D

E

.SCRIPTE.

Script E

.SCRIPTF.

Script F

G

.SCRIPTG.

Script G

.SCRIPTH.

Script H

.SCRIPTL.

Script L

P

.SCRIPTP.

Script P

.SCRIPTR.

Script R

S

.SCRIPTS.

Script S

.simeq.

Similar or Equal

.sqroot.

Square Root

.sum.

Sum

.scharw.

Surface Chemistry Arrow

Å

.sym.

Symmetry

«

.tautm.

Tautomer

´

.times.

Times

.tplbond.

Triple Bond

È

.union.

Union

.uparw.

Up Arrow

µ

.varies.

Varies

®

.vector.

Vector

¯

.hivin.

Vinculum (high)

_

.lovin.

Vinculum (low)

¥

.yen.

Yen

NOTE: Symbols which modify characters (e.g., the vinculum) precede the character (i.e., A becomes .hivin.A).

 

 

 

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