CAS Standard Abbreviations & Acronyms

Introduction

In CAS databases, certain abbreviations and acronyms are automatically generated for terms in the abstract text, the keyword phrases, and the text modifying phrases for index entries. Most of these abbreviations have been used prior to 1982. Users  need to know these standard abbreviations and acronyms in order to be able to use them in search profiles and identify them in text.

In this document, automatically generated abbreviations and acronyms in CAS publications and services are arranged in two lists. To guide users to abbreviations they need to include in their search profiles, Listing A is arranged in the alphabetical order of the full terms which are abbreviated. Do not use periods when searching CAS abbreviations or acronyms online. To provide explanation of abbreviations encountered in text, Listing B is arranged in the alphabetical order of abbreviations and acronyms.

Examples and Lists included on this web page:

In addition to the terms specifically listed as standard abbreviations and acronyms, abbreviations are automatically generated for the following types of words:

  1. Words formed by adding prefixes to terms normally abbreviated may also be abbreviated, e.g., "microchem." for "microchemical." In Listing A, words indicated by # on the left are those which, if prefixed, are generally abbreviated. (See, Abbreviations for some common prefixed terms)
  2. Words ending in "-ology" or "-ologic(al)(ly)" are abbreviated "-ol.," e.g., "geol." for "geology." (See examples)
  3. Words ending in "-ography" or "-ographic(al)(ly)" are abbreviated "-og.," E.g., "chromatog." For "chromatographic." (See examples)
  4. Plurals of noun abbreviations are formed by adding "s" to the singular abbreviation, e.g., "derivs." For "derivatives." Two exceptions are cases when a single abbreviation is designated to show both the singular and plural forms (e.g., "equil." For "equilibrium(s)" and words marked on the list with an asterisk (*) whose plurals are not abbreviated.
  5. Verb forms that require "s" are abbreviated by adding "s" to the listed abbreviation, e.g., "Compd. decomps. on heating" for "Compound decomposes on heating."

Standard abbreviations and acronyms are not automatically generated for terms appearing in titles. However, in titles abbreviations used by the author may appear.

In addition to the standard, automatically generated abbreviations and acronyms, other acronyms, atomic symbols (e.g., Cl, Sb), and molecular formulas (e.g., NaCl) may also be used in CAS publications and services.

Examples of some terms ending in "-ology" that are abbreviated "-ol."

    anesthesiology                       limnology

bacteriology meteorology
biology methodology
cardiology morphology
chronology nephrology
cytology neurology
dermatology oncology
ecology ophthalmology
endocrinology pathology
enzymology petrology
epidemiology pharmacology
etiology physiology
gastroenterology radiology
geology rheology
gynecology sedimentology
hematology serology
histology technology
homology teratology
hydrology topology
immunology virology

Abbreviation "-ol." is also applied to the adjective form, e.g., "pharmacologic(al)," the adverb form, e.g., "pharmacologically" and prefixed forms, e.g., "neuropharmacology" of terms ending in "-ology."

 

Examples of some terms ending in "-ography" that are abbreviated "-og.":

angiography metallography
bibliography micrography
biography oceanography
cardiography petrography
cholecystography photography
chromatography planography
crystallography polarography
derivatography radiography
electroencephalography reprography
electrography spectrography
fractography thermography
fragmentography tomography
geography topography
holography xerography
lithography

Abbreviation "og." is also applied to the adjective form, e.g., "geographic(al)," the adverb form, e.g., "geographically," and prefixed forms, e.g., "paleogeography" of terms ending in "-ography."

 

Abbreviations for some common prefixed terms *

anal. (analysis)

electroanal.

immunoanal.

microanal.

radioanal.

thermoanal.

at. [atomic(al)(ly)]

diat.

interat.

monoat.

polyat.

tetraat.

triat.

 

chem. [chemical(ly), chemistry]

agrochem.

biochem.

cytochem.

electrochem.

geochem.

histochem.

immunochem.

neurochem.

petrochem.

photochem.

physicochem.

radiochem.

spectrochem.

thermochem.

 

clin. [clinic(al)(ly)]

preclin.

subclin.

 

cond. (conductivity)

electrocond.

magnetocond.

photocond.

semicond.

supercond.

thermocond.

crystn. (crystallization)

cocrystn.

electrocrystn.

recrystn.

decompn. (decomposition)

photodecompn.

 

degrdn. (degradation)

biodegrdn.

photodegrdn.

thermodegrdn.

detn. (determination)

immunodetn.

microdetn.

 

dissocn. (dissociation)

photodissocn.

predissocn.

 

elec. [electric(al)(ly)]

acoustoelec.

bioelec.

dielec.

ferroelec.

isoelec.

paraelec.

photodielec.

photoelec.

piezoelec.

pyroelec.

thermoelec.

 

equil. (equilibrium)

disequil.

nonequil.

preequil.

extn. (extraction)

coextn.

electroextn.

reextn.

 

Hb (hemoglobin)

cargonylHb

carboxyHb

deoxyHb

ferriHb

metHb

oxyHb

sulfHb

 

irradn. (irradiation)

postirradn.

preirradn.

mech. [mechanic(al)(ly)]

biomech.

electromech.

micromech.

photomech.

physicomech.

thermomech.

 

mol. (molecule, molecular)

bimol.

intermol.

intramol.

macromol.

monomol.

supermol.

supramol.

turbomol.

unimol.

 

org. [organic(ally)]

bioinorg.

bioorg.

chloroorg.

electroorg.

fluoroorg.

inorg.

metalloorg.

microorg.

oxidn. (oxidation)

autoxidn.

biooxidn.

cooxidn.

deoxidn.

electrooxidn.

epoxidn.

peroxidn.

photooxidn.

reoxidn.

thermooxidn.

 

pptn. (precipitation)

copptn.

immunopptn.

 

soly. (solubility)

hydrosoly.

insoly.

liposoly.

sym. [symmetry, symmetric(al)(ly)]

asym.

unsym.

* See "Standard Abbreviations and Acronyms," Listing A for a complete list of terms which, if prefixed, are generally abbreviated.

Automatic retrieval of CAS abbreviations on STN

In CAS bibliographic files on STN, e.g., CAplus or CA, you can retrieve CAS abbreviations automatically. Simply enter the commands SET ABB ON and SET PLURAL ON at an arrow prompt.

When you SET ABB ON, abbreviations are generated for all terms searched in the Basic Index, or in the specific fields that comprise the Basic Index. A separate posting line appears if any occurrences of an abbreviation are found. When you SET PLURAL ON, you also automatically retrieve plural abbreviations.

The default for SET ABB is OFF. To include abbreviations for all SEARCH and QUERY commands in your session, enter SET ABB ON at an arrow prompt. To retain the ON setting beyond the current session, enter SET ABB ON PERM.

Not all CAS standard abbreviations are available with SET ABB. CAS abbreviations for most units and multiword terms have been removed to keep false drops and irrelevant retrievals to a minimum. To see a list of terms for which abbreviations will be added, enter HELP ABB at an arrow prompt (=>) in the file. For more information on this SET command, enter HELP SET ABB at an arrow prompt.

 

SET ABB ON to retrieve CAS abbreviations

=> SET ABB ON PERM
SET COMMAND COMPLETED
=> SET PLURAL ON PERM SET COMMAND COMPLETED
=> S PRECIPITAT? 35280 PRECIPITAT?
75559 PPT
30694 PPTS
98131 PPT
(PPT OR PPTS) 59648 PPTD
2 PPTDS
59648 PPTD
(PPTD OR PPTDS)
13101 PPTG
131576 PPTN 1980 PPTNS
132847 PPTN
(PPTN OR PPTNS)
L1 258048 PRECIPITAT? (PRECIPITAT? OR PPT OR PPTD OR PPTG OR PPTN)

Online help message

=> FILE CAPLUS
=> HELP ABB
 When you SET ABBREVIATONS ON, abbreviations are automatically
 generated for the terms in the following list when the term or a
 truncated stem that would encompass a listed term is searched in the
 Basic Index, or in the specific fields that comprise the Basic Index. 
Examples: => SET ABB ON
SET COMMAND COMPLETED => S CONCENTRAT?
149313 CONCENTRAT? 50824 CONC
115142 CONCD
9541 CONCG
1035004 CONCN L2 1221846 CONCENTRAT? (CONCENTRAT? OR CONC OR CONCD OR CONCG OR CONCN) For more information on this SET option, enter HELP SET ABB at an arrow prompt (=>). For a list of fields in the Basic Index, enter HELP SFIELDS at an arrow prompt in this file. ABSOLUTE DILUTED PRECIPITATE ABSTRACT DILUTING PRECIPITATED ADDITION DILUTION PRECIPITATING ADDITIONAL DIMETHYLFORMAMIDE PRECIPITATION ADDITIONALLY DISSOCIATE PREPARATION ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN DISSOCIATED PREPARE ALCOHOL DISSOCIATING PREPARED ALCOHOLIC DISSOCIATION PREPARING ALIPHATIC DISTILLATION PRODUCTION ALKALINE DISTILLED PROPYL ALKALINITY DISTILLING PURIFICATION DECOMPOSING ORGANIC FLAVIN ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE DECOMPOSITION OXIDATION FLAVIN MONONUCLEOTIDE DEGRADATION PHENYL INHIBITORY DOSE DEOXYRIBONUCLEASE PHYSICAL LETHAL DOSE DERIVATIVE PHYSICALLY LUTEINIZING HORMONE DETERMINATION POLYMERIZATION NICOTINAMIDE MONONUCLEOTIDE DETERMINE POLYMERIZED NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE DETERMINED POLYMERIZING NUCLEAR QUADRUPOLE RESONANCE DETERMINING POSITIVE RIBONUCLEIC ACID DIAMETER POSITIVELY SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY DILUTE POWDERED UV PHOTOELECTRON

Listing A

absolute abs.

abstract abstr.

#addition addn.

additional(ly) addnl.

adenosine 5'-diphosphate ADP

adenosine 5'-monophosphate AMP

adenosine triphosphatase ATPase

adenosine 5'-triphosphate ATP

adrenocorticotropin ACTH

#alcohol(ic) alc.

#aliphatic aliph.

alkaline alk.

alkalinity* alky.

all valence electron AVE

alternating current a.c.

amount amt.

ampere (unit) A

#analysis* anal.

#analytical(ly) anal.

angstrom unit **

anhydrous anhyd.

apparatus app.

approximate(ly) approx.

approximation approxn.

#aqueous aq.

#aromatic arom.

associate assoc.

associated assocd.

associating assocg.

#association assocn.

asymmetric(al)(ly) asym.

atmosphere (unit) atm.

atmospheric atm.

#atomic at.

atomic mass unit amu

atomic orbital AO

augmented plane wave APW

average av.

Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer BCS

barrel (unit) bbl

becquerel (unit) Bq

billion electron volts (unit) GeV

biochemical oxygen demand BOD

body centered cubic bcc.

Bohr magneton (unit) mB**

boiling point b.p.

British thermal unit Btu

bushel (unit) bu

butyl (normal) Bu

#calculate calc.

#calculated calcd.

#calculating calcg.

#calculation calcn.

calorie (unit) cal

carboxymethyl cellulose CM- cellulose

#chemical(ly) chem.

chemical oxygen demand COD

chemically pure CP

#chemistry chem.

circular dichroism CD

#clinical(ly) clin.

coefficient coeff.

#coenzyme A CoA

coherent potential approximation CPA

commercial(ly) com.

complete neglect of

differential overlap CNDO

composition compn.

compound compd.

concanavalin A ConA

#concentrate conc.

#concentrated concd.

#concentrating concg.

#concentration concn.

#conductivity* cond.

configuration interaction CI

constant const.

containing contg.

corrected cor.

coulomb (unit) C

coupled electron pair approximation CEPA

#critical crit.

#crystalline cryst.

crystallisation crystn

crystallised crystd

crystallising crystg

#crystallization crystn.

#crystallized crystd.

#crystallizing crystg.

cubic feet per minute (unit) cfm

curie (unit) Ci

current density c.d.

cyclic AMP cAMP

cyclic GMP cGMP

cytidine 5'-diphosphate CDP

cytidine 5'-monophosphate CMP

cytidine 5'-triphosphate CTP

debye unit D

decompose decomp.

decomposed decompd.

decomposing decompg.

#decomposition decompn.

#degradation degrdn.

degree Celsius centigrade (unit) C**

degree Fahrenheit (unit) F**

degree Kelvin K

degree of polymerization d.p.

density d.

deoxyribonuclease DNase

deoxyribonucleic acid DNA

derivative deriv.

#determination detn.

determine det.

#determined detd.

determining detg.

diameter diam.

diatomics-in-molecules DIM

diethylaminoethyl cellulose DEAE-cellulose

differential thermal analysis DTA

dilute dil.

diluted dild.

diluting dilg.

dilution diln.

dimethylformamide DMF

diphosphopyridine nucleotide NAD

direct current d.c.

disintegrations per minute (unit) dpm

dissociate dissoc.

dissociated dissocd.

dissociating dissocg.

#dissociation dissocn.

#distillation distn.

#distilled distd.

#distilling distg.

effective dose ED

#electric(al)(ly) elec.

electrocardiogram ECG

electroencephalogram EEG

electromagnetic unit emu

electromotive force emf.

electron paramagnetic resonance ESR

electron spin resonance ESR

electron volt (unit) eV

electrostatic unit esu

enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ELISA

#equilibrium(s) equil.

equivalent (unit) equiv.

#equivalent equiv.

especially esp.

estimate est.

estimated estd.

estimating estg.

estimation estn.

ethyl Et

ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid EDTA

evaporate evap.

evaporated evapd.

evaporating evapg.

evaporation evapn.

#examination examn.

#examined examd.

#examining examg.

experiment expt.

experimental(ly) exptl.

extended Hueckel molecular orbital EHMO

extract ext.

extracted extd.

extracting extg.

#extraction extn.

face centered cubic fcc.

farad (unit) F

fermentation fermn.

flavin adenine dinucleotide FAD

flavin mononucleotide FMN

floating spherical Gaussian orbital FSGO

foot (unit) ft

foot-pound (unit) ft-lb

follicle-stimulating hormone FSH

freezing point f.p.

gallon (unit) gal

gauss (unit) G

Gaussian-type orbital GTO

gram (unit) g

gravitational constant g

gray (absorbed radiation dose) (unit) Gy

guanosine 5'-diphosphate GDP

guanosine 5'-monophosphate GMP

guanosine 5'-triphosphate GTP

hectare ha

henry H

#hemoglobin Hb

hertz (cycles/sec) (unit) Hz

hexagonal close-packed hcp.

highest occupied molecular orbital HOMO

hour (unit) h

Hueckel molecular orbital HMO

hundredweight (unit) cwt

hydrogenic atoms in molecules HAM

immunoglobulin Ig

inch (unit) in.

independent electron pair approximation IEPA

infrared IR

inhibitory dose ID

inosine 5'-diphosphate IDP

inosine 5'-monophosphate IMP

inosine 5'-triphosphate ITP

intermediate neglect of differential overlap INDO

international unit IU

interstitial cell-stimulating hormone ICSH

intramuscular(ly) i.m.

intraperitoneal(ly) i.p.

intravenous(ly) i.v.

#irradiation irradn.

iterative extended Hueckel molecular

orbital IEHMO

joule (unit) J

kelvin (unit) K

laboratory lab.

lethal dose LD

linear combination of atomic orbitals LCAO

linear combination of fragment

configuration LCFC

liquid liq.

liter (unit) L

low energy electron diffraction LEED

lowest unoccupied molecular orbital LUMO

lumen (unit) lm

luteinizing hormone LH

lux (unit) lx

magnetohydrodynamics MHD

manufacture manuf.

manufactured manufd.

manufacturing manufg.

mathematical(ly) math.

maximum(s) max.

maxwell (unit) Mx

#mechanical(ly) mech.

melanocyte-stimulating hormone MSH

melting at m.

melting point m.p.

melts at m.

messenger RNA mRNA

metabolism metab.

meter (unit) m

methyl Me

mile (unit) mi

miles per hour (unit) mph

minimum(s) min.

minute (unit) min

miscellaneous misc.

#mixture mixt.

modified neglect of diatomic overlap MNDO

molal (unit) m

molar (unit) M

mole (unit) mol

#molecular mol.

molecular orbital MO

#molecule mol.

molecules-in-molecules MIM

month (unit) mo.

multiconfigurational self-consistent

field MC-SCF

#negative(ly) neg.

neglect of diatomic differential overlap NDDO

neglect of nonbonded differential

overlap NNDO

nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide NAD

nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

phosphate NADP

nicotinamide mononucleotide NMN

nuclear magnetic resonance NMR

nuclear quadrupole resonance NQR

number no.

observed obsd.

oersted (unit) Oe

ohm (unit) O **

optical rotatory dispersion ORD

#organic org.

ounce (unit) oz

#oxidation oxidn.

Pariser-Parr-Pople PPP

partial neglect of differential overlap PNDO

parts per billion (unit) ppb

parts per million (unit) ppm

pascal (unit) Pa

perturbational molecular orbital PMO

phenyl Ph

#physical(ly) phys.

pint (unit) pt

poise (unit) P

polymerisation polymn

polymerised polymd

polymerising polymg

#polymerization polymn.

#polymerized polymd.

#polymerizing polymg.

#positive(ly) pos.

potential difference p.d.

pound (unit) lb

pounds per square inch (unit) psi

pounds per square inch absolute (unit) psia

pounds per square inch gage (unit) psig

#powdered powd.

#precipitate ppt.

#precipitated pptd.

#precipitating pptg.

#precipitation pptn.

preparation prepn.

prepare prep.

prepared prepd.

preparing prepg.

#production prodn.

propyl (normal) Pr

#purification purifn.

qualitative(ly) qual.

#quantitative(ly) quant.

quart (unit) qt

radioimmunoassay RIA

random phase approximation RPA

#reduction redn.

reference ref.

reflection high energy electron

diffraction RHEED

reproduction reprodn.

resolution resoln.

#respective(ly) resp.

respiratory quotient RQ

restricted Hartree-Fock RHF

revolutions per minute (unit) rpm

ribonuclease RNase

ribonucleic acid RNA

ribosomal RNA rRNA

roentgen (unit) R

roentgen equivalent man (unit) rem

roentgen equivalent

physical (unit) rep

saponification sapon.

saponified sapond.

saponifying sapong.

saturate sat.

#saturated satd.

saturated calomel electrode SCE

saturating satg.

#saturation satn.

scanning electron microscopy SEM

second (unit) s

self-consistent field SCF

separate(ly) sep.

separated sepd.

separating sepg.

separation sepn.

siemens (unit) S

Slater-type orbital STO

#solubility* soly.

#soluble sol.

#solution soln.

specific gravity sp. gr.

specific volume sp. vol.

specific weight sp. wt.

standard std.

steradian (unit) sr

stokes (unit) St

subcutaneous(ly) s.c.

#symmetric(al)(ly) sym.

tablespoon (unit) tbs

teaspoon (unit) tsp

#technical(ly) tech.

temperature temp.

tesla (unit) T

tetrahydrofuran THF

theoretical(ly) theor.

thermodynamic(s) thermodn.

thyroid-stimulating hormone TSH

titration titrn.

triethylaminoethyl cellulose TEAE-cellulose

triphosphopyridine nucleotide NADP

ultraviolet UV

United States Pharmacopeia USP

unrestricted Hartree-Fock UHF

uridine 5'-diphosphate UDP

uridine 5'-monophosphate UMP

uridine 5'-triphosphate UTS

UV photoelectron spectroscopy UPS

volt (unit) V

volume vol.

watt (unit) W

weber (unit) Wb

week (unit) wk

weight wt.

x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy XPS

yard (unit) yd

year (unit) yr

zero differential overlap ZDO

* Terms whose plurals are not automatically abbreviated by adding "s."

# If prefixed, these words are generally abbreviated. For examples, see the list of "Abbreviations for some common prefixed terms" which precedes Listing A.

** For representation in computer-readable files see "Listing of Characters and Symbols in Computer-Readable Files."

Listing B

A ampere (unit)

angstrom (unit)

abs. absolute

abstr. abstract

a.c. alternating current

ACTH adrenocorticotropin

addn. addition

addnl. additional(ly)

ADP adenosine 5'-diphosphate

alc. alcohol(ic)

aliph. aliphatic

alk. alkaline

alky. alkalinity

AMP adenosine 5'-monophosphate

amt. amount

amu atomic mass unit

anal. analysis, analytical(ly)

anhyd. anhydrous

AO atomic orbital

app. apparatus

approx. approximate(ly)

approxn. approximation

APW augmented plane wave

aq. aqueous

arom. aromatic

assoc. associate

assocd. associated

assocg. associating

assocn. association

asym. asymmetric(al)(ly)

at. atomic

atm atmosphere (unit)

atm. atmospheric

ATP adenosine 5'-triphosphate

ATPase adenosine triphosphatase

av. average

AVE all valence electron

bbl barrel (unit)

bcc. body centered cubic

BCS bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer

BOD biochemical oxygen demand

b.p. boiling point

Bq becquerel (unit)

Btu British thermal unit

Bu butyl (normal)

bu bushel (unit)

mB Bohr magneton (unit)

C coulomb (unit)

C degree Celsius (centigrade) (unit)

cal calorie (unit)

calc. calculate

calcd. calculated

calcg. calculating

calcn. calculation

cAMP cyclic AMP

c.d. current density

CD circular dichroism

CDP cytidine 5'-diphosphate

CEPA coupled electron pair approximation

cfm cubic feet per minute (unit)

cGMP cyclic GMP

chem. chemical(ly), chemistry

CI configuration interaction

Ci curie (unit)

clin. clinical(ly)

CM-cellulose carboxymethyl cellulose

CMP cytidine 5'-monophosphate

CNDO complete neglect of differential overlap

CoA coenzyme A

COD chemical oxygen demand

coeff. coefficient

com. commercial(ly)

compd. compound

compn. composition

ConA concanavalin A

conc. concentrate

concd. concentrated

concg. concentrating

concn. concentration

cond. conductivity

const. constant

contg. containing

cor. corrected

CP chemically pure

CPA coherent potential approximation

crit. critical

cryst. crystalline

crystd crystallised

crystg crystallising

crystn crystallisation

crystd. crystallized

crystg. crystallizing

crystn. crystallization

CTP cytidine 5'-triphosphate

cwt hundred weight (unit)

D debye unit

d. density

d.c. direct current

DEAE-cellulose diethylaminoethyl cellulose

decomp. decompose

decompd. decomposed

decompg. decomposing

decompn. decomposition

degrdn. degradation

deriv. derivative

det. determine

detd. determined

detg. determining

detn. determination

diam. diameter

dil. dilute

dild. diluted

dilg. diluting

diln. dilution

DIM diatomics-in-molecules

dissoc. dissociate

dissocd. dissociated

dissocg. dissociating

dissocn. dissociation

distd. distilled

distg. distilling

distn. distillation

DMF dimethylformamide

DMSO dimethyl sulfoxide

DNA deoxyribonucleic acid

DNase deoxyribonuclease

d.p. degree of polymerization

dpm disintegrations per minute (unit)

DTA differential thermal analysis

ECG electrocardiogram

ED effective dose

EDTA ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid

EEG electroencephalogram

EHMO extended Hueckel molecular orbital

elec. electric(al)(ly)

ELISA enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

emf. electromotive force

emu electromagnetic unit

equil. equilibrium

equiv equivalent (unit)

equiv. equivalent

esp. especially

ESR electron spin resonance, electron paramagnetic resonance

est. estimate

estd. estimated

estg. estimating

estn. estimation

esu electrostatic unit

Et ethyl

eV electron volt (unit)

evap. evaporate

evapd. evaporated

evapg. evaporating

evapn. evaporation

examd. examined

examg. examining

examn. examination

expt. experiment

exptl. experimental(ly)

ext. extract

extd. extracted

extg. extracting

extn. extraction

F farad

F degree Fahrenheit (unit)

FAD flavin adenine dinucleotide

fcc. face centered cubic

fermn. fermentation

FMN flavin mononucleotide

f.p. freezing point

FSGO floating spherical Gaussian orbital

FSH follicle-stimulating hormone

ft foot (unit)

ft-lb foot-pound (unit)

g gram (unit)

g gravitational constant

G gauss (unit)

gal gallon (unit)

GDP guanosine 5'-diphosphate

GeV billion electron volts (unit)

GMP guanosine 5'-monophosphate

GTO Gaussian-type orbital

GTP guanosine 5'-triphosphate

Gy gray (absorbed radiation dose) (unit)

h hour (unit)

H henry (unit)

ha hectare (unit)

HAM hydrogenic atoms in molecules

Hb hemoglobin

hcp hexagonal close-packed

HMO Hueckel molecular orbital

HOMO highest occupied molecular orbital

Hz hertz (cycles/sec) (unit)

ICSH interstitial cell-stimulating hormone

ID inhibitory dose

IDP inosine 5'-diphosphate

IEHMO iterative extended Hueckel molecular orbital

IEPA independent electron pair approximation

Ig immunoglobulin

i.m. intramuscular(ly)

IMP inosine 5'-monophosphate

in. inch (unit)

INDO intermediate neglect of differential overlap

i.p. intraperitoneal(ly)

IR infrared

irradn. irradiation

ITP inosine 5'-triphosphate

IU international unit

i.v. intravenous(ly)

J joule (unit)

K kelvin (unit)

L liter (unit)

lab. laboratory

lb pound (unit)

LCAO linear combination of atomic orbitals

LCFC linear combination of fragment configuration

LD lethal dose

LEED low energy electron diffraction

LH luteinizing hormone

liq. liquid

lm lumen (unit)

LUMO lowest unoccupied molecular orbital

lx lux (unit)

m meter (unit)

m molal (unit)

M molar (unit)

m. melts at, melting at

manuf. manufacture

manufd. manufactured

manufg. manufacturing

math. mathematical(ly)

max. maximum

MC-SCF multiconfigurational self-consistent field

Me methyl (not metal)

mech. mechanical(ly) (not mechanism)

metab. metabolism

MHD magnetohydrodynamics

mi mile (unit)

MIM molecules-in-molecules

min minute (unit)

min. minimum(s)

misc. miscellaneous

mixt. mixture

MNDO modified neglect of diatomic overlap

mo month (unit)

MO molecular orbital

mol mole (unit)

mol. molecule, molecular

m.p. melting point

mph miles per hour (unit)

mRNA messenger RNA

MSH melanocyte-stimulating hormone

Mx maxwell (unit)

NAD nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

NADP nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate

NDDO neglect of diatomic differential overlap

neg. negative(ly)

NMN nicotinamide mononucleotide

NMR nuclear magnetic resonance

NNDO neglect of nonbonded differential overlap

no. number

NQR nuclear quadruple resonance

obsd. observed

Oe oersted (unit)

O ohm (unit)

ORD optical rotatory dispersion

org. organic

oxidn. oxidation

oz ounce

P poise (unit)

Pa pascal (unit)

p.d. potential difference

Ph phenyl

phys. physical(ly)

PMO perturbational molecular orbital

PNDO partial neglect of differential overlap

polymd polymerised

polymg polymerising

polymn polymerisation

polymd. polymerized

polymg. polymerizing

polymn. polymerization

pos. positive(ly)

powd. powdered

ppb parts per billion (unit)

ppm parts per million (unit)

PPP Pariser-Parr-Pople

ppt. precipitate

pptd. precipitated

pptg. precipitating

pptn. precipitation

Pr propyl (normal)

prep. prepare

prepd. prepared

prepg. preparing

prepn. preparation

prodn. production

psi pounds per square inch (unit)

psia pounds per square inch absolute (unit)

psig pounds per square inch gage (unit)

pt pint (unit)

purifn. purification

qt quart (unit)

qual. qualitative(ly)

quant. quantitative(ly)

R roentgen (unit)

redn. reduction

ref. reference

rem roentgen equivalent man (unit)

rep roentgen equivalent physical (unit)

reprodn. reproduction

resoln. resolution

resp. respective(ly)

RHEED reflection high energy electron diffraction

RHF restricted Hartree-Fock

RNA ribonucleic acid

RNase ribonuclease

RPA random phase approximation

rRNA ribosomal RNA

rpm revolutions per minute (unit)

RQ respiratory quotient

s second (unit)

S siemens (unit)

sapon. saponification

sapond. saponified

sapong. saponifying

sat. saturate

satd. saturated

satg. saturating

satn. saturation

s.c. subcutaneous(ly)

SCE saturated calomel electrode

SCF self-consistent field

SEM scanning electron microscopy

sep. separate(ly)

sepd. separated

sepg. separating

sepn. separation

sol. soluble

soln. solution

soly. solubility

sp. gr. specific gravity

sp. vol. specific volume

sp. wt. specific weight

sr steradian (unit)

St stokes (unit)

std. standard

STO Slater-type orbital

sym. symmetric(al)(ly)

T tesla (unit)

tbs tablespoon (unit)

TEAE-cellulose triethylaminoethyl cellulose

tech. technical(ly)

temp. temperature

theor. theoretical(ly)

thermodn. thermodynamic(s)

THF tetrahydrofuran

titrn. titration

TSH thyroid-stimulating hormone

tsp teaspoon (unit)

UDP uridine 5'-diphosphate

UHF unrestricted Hartree-Fock

UMP uridine 5'-monophosphate

UPS UV photoelectron spectroscopy

USP United States Pharmacopeia

UTP uridine 5'-triphosphate

UV ultraviolet

V volt (unit)

vol. volume

W watt (unit)

Wb weber (unit)

wk week (unit)

wt. weight

XPS x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

yd yard (unit)

yr year (unit)

ZDO zero differential overlap

Characters and Symbols in Computer-Readable Files

In computer-readable files all characters of the Roman alphabet and numbers are represented in the same way as in CAS publications. However, no distinctions are made for italic, boldface, or small capital letters. Also, superscripts and subscripts appear on the line.

Special conventions are used to represent some characters and symbols in computer-readable files. These conventions are shown in the following lists. Some of these characters and symbols can be searched in computer-readable files. For search terms, representations without the periods are used.

Conventions for Representing Greek Letters in Computer-Readable Files

 

Conventions for Representing Symbols in Computer-Readable Files

 

 

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