47 Apparatus and Plant Equipment
This section includes laboratory apparatus for research and development, industrial apparatus and equipment for carrying out any of the unit operations (involving physical change) and unit processes (involving chemical change), when the equipment has a multipurpose application. Apparatus and equipment having a singular use, identifiable with a specific section, are placed in that appropriate section. Included also in this section are high- and low-temperature apparatus (e.g., furnaces, Dewars), material-handling apparatus (e.g., conveyors, vessels), and general construction materials for the equipment. Apparatus and equipment undefinable as to specific area of application or for multiple areas of application are placed here.
48 Unit Operations and Processes
This section includes general multipurpose unit operations (physical change involved) and unit processes (chemical change involved). Unit operations and processes identifiable with a specific section are placed in that appropriate section. Included are experimental and theoretical studies of chemical engineering subjects (e.g., transport processes, material handling, separation and mixing processes, size reduction and enlargement, process control, optimization, and mathematical modeling). Design fundamentals and automation are also included. Flame propagation and flame stability of unspecified materials are placed here, but flame studies of specific materials are placed in the appropriate section, e.g., propellants in Section 50, fossil fuels and blends in Section 51, fireproofing of textiles in Section 40.
49 Industrial Inorganic Chemicals
This section includes those processes and reactions for the preparation and purification of inorganic chemicals that are especially of commercial interest. Those inorganic compounds of a more restricted use, when the use is demonstrated, are included in the section appropriate for the use: e.g., carbon black manufactured and used to make rubber, Section 39; special forms of calcium phosphate use in dentifrices, Section 62; metal oxides for ceramics, Section 57.
50 Propellants and Explosives
This section includes the preparation, properties, and uses of explosives, propellants, incendiaries, and pyrotechnics as well as devices employing these compositions. It includes ignition, detonation, explosion, combustion, and flame studies. Fire extinguishers are included but not fireproofing or fire-retarding agents, which are covered in the section appropriate to the material treated. Ionic propulsion is included here but nuclear propulsion is placed in Section 71. Aerosol propellant studies for specific applications are placed in the appropriate section, e.g., pesticides in Section 5; food in Section 17; lubricants in Section 51; cosmetics in Section 62.
51 Fossil Fuels, Derivatives, and Related Products
This section includes the geochemistry, prospecting, recovery, refining, and uses of fossil fuels, petroleum and coal; refining, treatment, and uses of fossil fuel products and their derivatives (e.g., gasoline, lubricants, asphalt, synthesis gas from coal); analysis, properties, catalysts for production of hydrocarbon fuels and related products, and safety aspects of fossil fuels and their derivatives; and drilling fluids, oil additives, antifreeze compositions, synthetic lubricants, hydraulic fluids, cutting oils, and the production of hydrocarbon fuels from carbon monoxide and hydrogen. Flame studies and combustion of fossil fuels are included in this section. Treatment of automotive exhaust gases and stack gases is included in Section 59; paving compositions in Section 58; and manufacture of industrial chemicals from petroleum in Section 45.
52 Electrochemical, Radiational, and Thermal Energy Technology
This section covers chemical, biochemical, electrochemical, photochemical and chemical engineering aspects of nonfossil (solar, ocean thermal, geothermal, waste heat) energy sources; recovery and conversion or use of these sources, energy-conversion devices and their components, and energy handling and storage; production of fuels from biomass and organic wastes by, e.g., fermentation, gasification, etc.; safety aspects of nonfossil energy utilization. Conventional methods for production of hydrogen are included in Section 49 for industrial methods, Section 78 for laboratory synthesis, or Section 72 for electrolysis, fossil fuels and blends in Section 51, nuclear fuels and nuclear batteries are included in Section 71. Electrochemical devices having no power generation application are covered in appropriate sections, e.g., standard cells in Section 72, oxygen sensors for automobile exhaust gases in Section 59.
53 Mineralogical and Geological Chemistry
This section includes the chemistry of mineralogy; economic geology formation of igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks, sediments, and soils; geochronology; cosmochemistry of the solar system; meteorites; atmosphere; rainmaking processes; hydrogeochemistry of groundwaters, thermal springs, and brines; and chemical evidence for geological age determination. New analytical techniques for natural and synthetic minerals and inorganic soil constituents are placed in Section 79; analytical methods for natural air components are placed in Section 79 or Section 80; structure of synthetic minerals in Section 75; economic geology of coal, natural gas, and petroleum in Section 51; water chemistry in Section 61; soil studies of agricultural interest in Section 19; spectra of stars and galaxies in Section 73; cosmology in Section 70; and geothermal fields under production in Section 52.
54 Extractive Metallurgy
This section includes the treatment and beneficiation of metallic raw materials and the recovery of metals from ores and from scrap and waste solids and liquids. The processing of nonmetallic ores, such as the phosphorites, is included in Section 49, and of coal, in Section 51. Blast-furnace practices for all metals are included here, but the casting and refining of iron after recovery is placed in Section 55. The recovery of metals by electrolysis is included here as well as recovery of metals from electroplating wastewater. The electrodeposition of metals for coatings is included in Sections 55 and 56, or in 72, if the primary interest is in the electrochemistry.
55 Ferrous Metals and Alloys
This section includes the preparation, casting, treatment, properties, and fabrication of iron, steel, and iron base alloys. Corrosion is included here, but is placed in Section 72 if the emphasis is on the electrochemistry of the corrosion process. Coating of iron and iron alloys with metallic or ceramic materials is included here, but ferrous coating of plastics or ceramics is included in Section 38 or 57, respectively; ferrous coatings on nonferrous metal substrates are covered in Section 56. Electroplating of ferrous metals is placed in Section 72 if the interest is in the electrochemical process. Recrystallization and grain growth of ferrous metals and alloys are included here, but crystal structure studies are placed in Section 75. Studies of two or more alloys representing both ferrous and nonferrous alloys are included in Section 56. Analytical methods for iron and ferrous alloys are included in Section 79.
56 Nonferrous Metals and Alloys
This section includes the preparation, casting, treatment, properties, and fabrication of nonferrous metals and alloys (<50 percent iron). Studies of two or more alloys representing ferrous and nonferrous alloys are included here. Nonferrous metal corrosion is included here, but if the emphasis is on the electrochemistry of the corrosion process, in Section 72. Coating of nonferrous metals and alloys with metallic or ceramic materials is included here, but nonferrous coating of plastics or ceramics is included in Sections 38 or 57, respectively; electroplating of nonferrous metals is placed in Section 72 if the interest is in the electrochemistry. Recrystallization and grain growth of nonferrous metals and alloys are included here, crystal structure studies are placed in Section 75. Analytical methods for nonferrous metals and alloys are in Section 79. Metals and alloys for prosthetic devices and medical goods are in Section 63.
This section includes the preparation, composition, analysis, properties, and uses of glass, ceramics, glazes, enamels, refractories, clay products, abrasives, and carbon products. Organic glasses are included in Section 37. Studies of raw materials are included in Section 53 when the interest is of geological significance and ultimate use is incidental. Cermets containing more than one percent metal are included in Section 56. Some specific uses and properties of ceramics are covered in other sections (e.g., 63, 65, 75, and 76).
58 Cement, concrete, and Related Building Materials
This section includes the preparation, composition, analysis, properties, and uses of cement, mortar, concrete, and building materials. Building materials included here are semifinished and finished materials such as boards, walls, thermal insulators, sound insulators, roofing, and pavement. Chemicals and compositions used in construction are covered here. Soil stabilization is included here, but encapsulation and burial of toxic wastes are covered in Section 60, except for radioactive wastes which are covered in Section 71. Cementitious refractories are included in Section 57. Mortar, concrete, and related compositions containing polymer binders in place of cement are included in Section 38.
59 Air Pollution and Industrial Hygiene
This section covers the presence of polluting materials in the air and the reactions of these materials with each other and with naturally occurring substances. Indoor air pollution, including radon pollution, is included here. Methods for removal of pollutants from air and from emissions prior to release are included, except for prevention of auto exhaust pollutant formation by fuel alteration or engine modification which is in Section 51. Natural atmospheric phenomena and chemistry of the atmosphere are in Section 53 and atmospheric precipitation in Section 61. Methods for determination of pollutants in air are covered here but analytical methods for determination of natural air components are in Section 79 or Section 80. Atmosphere regeneration is in Section 9. Industrial safety studies in both chemical and nonchemical industries are placed here, except for controlled studies of pollutant toxicity, which are in Section 4.
60 Waste Treatment and Disposal
This section includes the composition, chemistry, treatment (biological, chemical, and physical), and disposal of domestic, municipal, laboratory, and industrial wastes and sludges and the design and operation of incinerators. Radioactive waste studies are placed in Section 71. Studies dealing with recovery and recycling of specific materials from wastes are included in sections which deal with those materials: e.g., recovery of hydrochloric acid and iron oxide from waste pickle liquor is placed in Section 49, metal recovery from wastes in Section 54.
This section includes the chemical and physical properties of natural waters and seawater; chemical analysis of natural waters, seawater, wastewater, and surface sediments; treatment processes: purification, desalination, softening, etc., for water for domestic and industrial uses; chemicals for water treatment, including water treatment for prevention of corrosion, scaling, and fouling of pipes and equipment in contact with waters; atmospheric precipitation, fog, snow, except rainmaking, which is placed in Section 53; water pollution including oil spills; and studies involving aquatic organisms in which the interest is primarily in the water source or habitat.
62 Essential Oils and Cosmetics
This section includes essential oils and their composition and cosmetic products such as hair and skin preparations, perfumes, antiperspirants, deodorants, dentifrices, mouthwashes, and suntanning and sunscreen preparations. Plant composition with no oil interest is included in Section 11; structure elucidation or synthesis of terpenes, in Section 30; synthesis of compounds for cosmetics, in appropriate synthetic section; analysis of FD & C dyes, in Section 17.
This section includes drug standards, pharmacopeias, pharmaceutical formulations, biologicals, commercial plant-drug preparations, prosthetic materials, surgical goods, life-maintaining devices, radiopharmaceuticals, and properties of pharmaceuticals such as degradation, solubility, stability, dissolution, and bioavailability in relation to formulation. Pharmacological, metabolic, and structure-activity relationships of drugs are placed in Section 1; isolation of plant constituents with no commercial drug use is covered in Section 11; preparation of drugs by fermentation, in Section 16; synthesis of drugs, in the appropriate synthetic chemistry section; antiperspirants, deodorants, dentifrices, mouthwashes, and other cosmetic products appear in Section 62; analysis of pharmaceuticals in pure form or in formulations is placed in Section 64.
64 Pharmaceutical Analysis
This section includes analysis of drugs in pure form or in pharmaceutical formulations. Analysis of drugs in blood, body fluids, organs, or tissues is included in Section 1; forensic analysis is included in Section 4; analysis of FD & C dyes approved for food use is included in Section 17.